1.27

Showing comments and forms 1 to 30 of 55

Object

Local Plan 2040 Draft Plan - Strategy options and draft policies consultation

Representation ID: 4137

Received: 30/08/2021

Representation Summary:


The transport model used by AECOM is fundamentally flawed because the model has not been validated / calibrated (particularly with respect to public transport), the National Trip End Model should not be used below district / county level, no uncertainty log has been prepared, it doesn’t include household survey data, and the data has not been adequately tested. Strategic models are not designed for use in a scheme specific assessment. The latter requires a revised forecast model produced from a recalibrated base year model using additional and more recent data with a more specific geographical focus of resources and modelling.

Full text:


The transport model used by AECOM is fundamentally flawed because the model has not been validated / calibrated (particularly with respect to public transport), the National Trip End Model should not be used below district / county level, no uncertainty log has been prepared, it doesn’t include household survey data, and the data has not been adequately tested. Strategic models are not designed for use in a scheme specific assessment. The latter requires a revised forecast model produced from a recalibrated base year model using additional and more recent data with a more specific geographical focus of resources and modelling.

Object

Local Plan 2040 Draft Plan - Strategy options and draft policies consultation

Representation ID: 4162

Received: 30/08/2021

Representation Summary:

The transport model used by AECOM is fundamentally flawed because the model has not been
validated/ calibrated (particularly with respect to public transport), the National Trip End Model
(NTEM) should not be used below district / county level, no uncertainty log has been prepared, it
doesn’t include household survey data, and the data has not been adequately tested. Strategic
models are not designed for use in a scheme specific assessment. The latter requires a revised
forecast model produced from a recalibrated base year model using additional and more recent data
with a more specific geographical focus of resources and modelling.

Full text:

The transport model used by AECOM is fundamentally flawed because the model has not been
validated/ calibrated (particularly with respect to public transport), the National Trip End Model
(NTEM) should not be used below district / county level, no uncertainty log has been prepared, it
doesn’t include household survey data, and the data has not been adequately tested. Strategic
models are not designed for use in a scheme specific assessment. The latter requires a revised
forecast model produced from a recalibrated base year model using additional and more recent data
with a more specific geographical focus of resources and modelling.

Object

Local Plan 2040 Draft Plan - Strategy options and draft policies consultation

Representation ID: 4281

Received: 31/08/2021

Representation Summary:

Far too much complex information to be able to make an informed opinion as a resident of Bedford Borough.

Full text:

Far too much complex information to be able to make an informed opinion as a resident of Bedford Borough.

Object

Local Plan 2040 Draft Plan - Strategy options and draft policies consultation

Representation ID: 4463

Received: 31/08/2021

Representation Summary:

The transport model used by AECOM is fundamentally flawed because the model has not been validated / calibrated (particularly with respect to public transport), the National Trip End Model should not be used below district / county level, no uncertainty log has been prepared, it doesn’t include household survey data, and the data has not been adequately tested. Strategic models are not designed for use in a scheme specific assessment. The latter requires a revised forecast model produced from a recalibrated base year model using additional and more recent data with a more specific geographical focus of resources and modelling.

Full text:

The Transport Modelling undertaken by AECOM in support of the strategic options in the Draft Local Plan 2040 is fundamentally flawed for the following reasons.
No validation or calibration of the traffic model has been undertaken which is not in keeping with Department for Transport WebTAG guidance.
It is assumed that the Bedford Borough Transport Model was undertaken using Saturn, which was the model of choice for the Bedford Town Centre modelling project in 2015. In this case, Saturn cannot directly Model Public Transport therefore it is assumed that the engineers have made some significant assumptions with respect to public transport and trips being used, which have not been validated or calibrated.
TAG unit M1.2 introduces the National Trip End Model (NTEM). It includes forecasts of population, households, workforce and jobs over 30 years which are used in a series of models that forecast population, employment, car ownership, trip ends and traffic growth by Middle Layer Super Output Area (MSOA). The NTEM data set can be viewed using the TEMPro (Trip End Model Presentation Program) software. TEMPro estimates of trip ends at any level below aggregate regions (e.g. MSOA, district, or county level) are subject to uncertainty and should not be used as constraints in matrix development process without verification and possible adjustments. No uncertainty log was prepared which is a recommendation of WebTAG modelling guidance.
For direct use in matrix development, trip rate information estimated from household survey data should be considered instead to underpin trip end estimates at zone level. There is a risk that model may not be realistic or sensible due to the error around the model parameters used, or limitations in the extent to which the model can represent human behaviour. Therefore, before using any mathematical model, it is essential to check that it produces credible outputs consistent with observed behaviour. This is usually done by running the model for the base year (either the current year or a recent year), and:
• comparing its outputs with independent data (validation);
• checking that its response to changes in inputs is realistic, based on results from independent evidence (realism testing); and
• checking that the model responds appropriately to all its main inputs (sensitivity testing).
Five types of data can be collected and used to inform most models:
• data on the transport network, including the physical layout, number of lanes, signal timings, public transport frequencies and capacities;
• counts of vehicles or persons on transport services, links or at junctions;
• journey times;
• queue lengths at busy junctions;
• interview surveys, in which transport users are asked to describe trips either through household travel diaries or intercept surveys (e.g. roadside interviews, public transport onboard interview surveys.
These types of checks have not been undertaken to validate / calibrate the model.
AECOM have derived trip ends using CTripEnds for a number of journey purposes. Expanding synthetic trip ends produced by CTripEnd to the local zoning system is considered to be subject to significant discrepancies from observed especially if validation and the calibration exercise has not been undertaken.
It is also important to note that strategic models are not designed for use in a scheme specific assessment. For such an assessment it is recommended a revised forecast model would be produced from a recalibrated base year model using additional and more recent data and targeted to reflect a more specific geographical focus of resources and modelling effort.

As part of the Bedford Borough Transport Model documents it is quoted that average departing trips are 20 to 25 vehicles, which may be below the trip rates assumed as part of a detailed development assessment. The extract below is taken from the New Settlement West of Wyboston document.

“20 to 25 outbound car vehicle trips in the AM peak hour”

It is unknown what scenario of Dennybrook (site 977) development that the above “20 to 25 outbound car vehicle trips in the AM peak hour” relate to, however an outbound TRCS residential trip rate is somewhere between 0.23 to 0.33 vehicles per dwelling.
The development scenario ranges from 2,500 dwellings to 10,150 dwellings. On this basis and using a 0.25 departure trip rate results in 625 to 2,538 departing trips all of which would be home based departure trips. The model assumes 5 loading zones which therefore means there could be 125 to 508 vehicles per loading zone. This is significantly higher than the 20 to 25 outbound vehicle used by the AECOM model, assuming they have loaded it per node.
AECOM may claim that some of the departing trips will be internal and therefore will not cross cordon line however taking the 125 departing vehicle trips associated with 2,500 dwellings scenario; 20% of these departing vehicles are considered not to be leaving the area. This percentage decreases further if the worst case number of dwellings is being considered, i.e. 10,150 dwellings. It has previously been highlighted that the AECOM model has not be validated / calibrated and now given the apparent significant under valuation of the likely vehicle trips that will be generated, it is clear that the assessment of the capacity of junctions and the highway network is fundamentally flawed.
The significant undervaluation of generated vehicle trips could be argued by AECOM as being a reduction due to the impact of the public transport. However, the proposed new railway stations associated with the East West Rail Link are located to the east of the A1, which is significantly far enough away for the Dennybook development to be considered to not directly serve it without requiring a vehicle car trip to be generated. In this scenario it more likely that occupiers of Dennybrook (site 977) dwellings will continue their journey by car as opposed to transferring onto rail.
Given this all of the assessments undertaken by AECOM to determine the rerouting and vehicle km travelled for any scenario are highly unlikely to be representative.
Town planning principles are that new development should be centred on and around existing sustainable urban area where local infrastructure exists and allow residents to travel using public transport to serve the development which can be easily extended.
If larger new settlements are the only realistic option then they should be centred on transport hubs such as a new railway station so that they become the heart of the community and the de facto mode of travel. Locating a new settlement on the edge of town / out of town where the transport hub is also not well connected leads to a disjointed sustainable public transport which will always be second best to car travel.

Object

Local Plan 2040 Draft Plan - Strategy options and draft policies consultation

Representation ID: 4489

Received: 31/08/2021

Representation Summary:

Table 1.1: Forecast Reference Case Volume-Capacity Ratios at Selected Locations clearly highlights that the concentration of development in the Local Plan 2040 to the south of Bedford along the A421 corridor is NOT SUSTAINABLE and will severely impact residents in the south of Bedford, and will cripple links into the town centre. It illustrates that the road systems north of Bedford have capacity to receive development along the A6 north of Bedford. It is clear the selected sites for the Local Plan 2040 will not benefit the town, or the Oxford-Cambridge Arc and will make Bedford a place to avoid.

Full text:

Table 1.1: Forecast Reference Case Volume-Capacity Ratios at Selected Locations clearly highlights that the concentration of development in the Local Plan 2040 to the south of Bedford along the A421 corridor is NOT SUSTAINABLE and will severely impact residents in the south of Bedford, and will cripple links into the town centre. It illustrates that the road systems north of Bedford have capacity to receive development along the A6 north of Bedford. It is clear the selected sites for the Local Plan 2040 will not benefit the town, or the Oxford-Cambridge Arc and will make Bedford a place to avoid.

Object

Local Plan 2040 Draft Plan - Strategy options and draft policies consultation

Representation ID: 4539

Received: 01/09/2021

Representation Summary:

The transport model used by AECOM is fundamentally flawed. The model has not been validated / calibrated (particularly with respect to public transport), the National Trip End Model (NTEM) should not be used below district / county level, no uncertainty log has been prepared, it doesn’t include household survey data, and the data has not been adequately tested. Strategic models are not designed for use in a scheme specific assessment. The latter requires a revised forecast model produced from a recalibrated base year model using additional and more recent data with a more specific geographical focus of resources and modelling.

Full text:

The transport model used by AECOM is fundamentally flawed. The model has not been validated / calibrated (particularly with respect to public transport), the National Trip End Model (NTEM) should not be used below district / county level, no uncertainty log has been prepared, it doesn’t include household survey data, and the data has not been adequately tested. Strategic models are not designed for use in a scheme specific assessment. The latter requires a revised forecast model produced from a recalibrated base year model using additional and more recent data with a more specific geographical focus of resources and modelling.

Object

Local Plan 2040 Draft Plan - Strategy options and draft policies consultation

Representation ID: 4630

Received: 01/09/2021

Representation Summary:

The transport model used by AECOM is fundamentally flawed because the model has not been validated / calibrated (particularly with respect to public transport), the National Trip End Model should not be used below district / county level, no uncertainty log has been prepared, it doesn’t include household survey data, and the data has not been adequately tested. Strategic models are not designed for use in a scheme specific assessment. The latter requires a revised forecast model produced from a recalibrated base year model using additional and more recent data with a more specific geographical focus of resources and modelling.

Full text:

I have severe Parkinson’s and cannot type easily. Please duplicate all of Lucy Crawford’s responses for my views. Her email address is Lucy_crawford@hotmail.com and she lives at 33, Staploe PE19 5JA

Object

Local Plan 2040 Draft Plan - Strategy options and draft policies consultation

Representation ID: 4687

Received: 01/09/2021

Representation Summary:

The Transport Modelling undertaken by AECOM in support of the strategic options in the Draft Local Plan 2040 is fundamentally flawed for the following reasons.
No validation or calibration of the traffic model has been undertaken which is not in keeping with Department for Transport WebTAG guidance.
It is assumed that the Bedford Borough Transport Model was undertaken using Saturn, which was the model of choice for the Bedford Town Centre modelling project in 2015. In this case, Saturn cannot directly Model Public Transport therefore it is assumed that the engineers have made some significant assumptions with respect to public transport and trips being used, which have not been validated or calibrated.
TAG unit M1.2 introduces the National Trip End Model (NTEM). It includes forecasts of population, households, workforce and jobs over 30 years which are used in a series of models that forecast population, employment, car ownership, trip ends and traffic growth by Middle Layer Super Output Area (MSOA). The NTEM data set can be viewed using the TEMPro (Trip End Model Presentation Program) software. TEMPro estimates of trip ends at any level below aggregate regions (e.g. MSOA, district, or county level) are subject to uncertainty and should not be used as constraints in matrix development process without verification and possible adjustments. No uncertainty log was prepared which is a recommendation of WebTAG modelling guidance.
For direct use in matrix development, trip rate information estimated from household survey data should be considered instead to underpin trip end estimates at zone level. There is a risk that model may not be realistic or sensible due to the error around the model parameters used, or limitations in the extent to which the model can represent human behaviour. Therefore, before using any mathematical model, it is essential to check that it produces credible outputs consistent with observed behaviour. This is usually done by running the model for the base year (either the current year or a recent year), and:
• comparing its outputs with independent data (validation);
• checking that its response to changes in inputs is realistic, based on results from independent evidence (realism testing); and
• checking that the model responds appropriately to all its main inputs (sensitivity testing).
Five types of data can be collected and used to inform most models:
• data on the transport network, including the physical layout, number of lanes, signal timings, public transport frequencies and capacities;
• counts of vehicles or persons on transport services, links or at junctions;
• journey times;
• queue lengths at busy junctions;
• interview surveys, in which transport users are asked to describe trips either through household travel diaries or intercept surveys (e.g. roadside interviews, public transport onboard interview surveys.
These types of checks have not been undertaken to validate / calibrate the model.
AECOM have derived trip ends using CTripEnds for a number of journey purposes. Expanding synthetic trip ends produced by CTripEnd to the local zoning system is considered to be subject to significant discrepancies from observed especially if validation and the calibration exercise has not been undertaken.
It is also important to note that strategic models are not designed for use in a scheme specific assessment.
For such an assessment it is recommended a revised forecast model would be produced from a recalibrated base year model using additional and more recent data and targeted to reflect a more specific geographical focus of resources and modelling effort.
As part of the Bedford Borough Transport Model documents it is quoted that average departing trips are 20 to 25 vehicles, which may be below the trip rates assumed as part of a detailed development assessment. The extract below is taken from the New Settlement West of Wyboston document. (para 2.4.3 of document inserted here).
It is unknown what scenario of Dennybrook (site 977) development that the above “20 to 25 outbound car vehicle trips in the AM peak hour” relate to, however an outbound TRCS residential trip rate is somewhere between 0.23 to 0.33 vehicles per dwelling.
The development scenario ranges from 2,500 dwellings to 10,150 dwellings. On this basis and using a 0.25 departure trip rate results in 625 to 2,538 departing trips all of which would be home based departure trips. The model assumes 5 loading zones which therefore means there could be 125 to 508 vehicles per loading zone. This is significantly higher than the 20 to 25 outbound vehicle used by the AECOM model, assuming they have loaded it per node.
AECOM may claim that some of the departing trips will be internal and therefore will not cross cordon line however taking the 125 departing vehicle trips associated with 2,500 dwellings scenario; 20% of these departing vehicles are considered not to be leaving the area. This percentage decreases further if the worst case number of dwellings is being considered, i.e. 10,150 dwellings. It has previously been highlighted that the AECOM model has not be validated / calibrated and now given the apparent significant under valuation of the likely vehicle trips that will be generated, it is clear that the assessment of the capacity of junctions and the highway network is fundamentally flawed.
The significant undervaluation of generated vehicle trips could be argued by AECOM as being a reduction due to the impact of the public transport. However, the proposed new railway stations associated with the East West Rail Link are located to the east of the A1, which is significantly far enough away for the Dennybook development to be considered to not directly serve it without requiring a vehicle car trip to be generated. In this scenario it more likely that occupiers of Dennybrook (site 977) dwellings will continue their journey by car as opposed to transferring onto rail.
Given this all of the assessments undertaken by AECOM to determine the rerouting and vehicle km travelled for any scenario are highly unlikely to be representative.
Town planning principles are that new development should be centred on and around existing sustainable urban area where local infrastructure exists and allow residents to travel using public transport to serve the development which can be easily extended.
If larger new settlements are the only realistic option then they should be centred on transport hubs such as a new railway station so that they become the heart of the community and the de facto mode of travel. Locating a new settlement on the edge of town / out of town where the transport hub is also not well connected leads to a disjointed sustainable public transport which will always be second best to car travel.

Object

Local Plan 2040 Draft Plan - Strategy options and draft policies consultation

Representation ID: 4866

Received: 02/09/2021

Representation Summary:

The transport model used by AECOM is fundamentally flawed because it has not been validated / calibrated (particularly with respect to public transport), the National Trip End Model (NTEM) should not be used below district / county level, no uncertainty log has been prepared, it doesn’t include household survey data, and the data has not been adequately tested. Strategic models are not designed for use in a scheme specific assessment. The latter requires a revised forecast model produced from a recalibrated base year model using additional and more recent data with a more specific geographical focus of resources and modelling

Full text:

The transport model used by AECOM is fundamentally flawed because it has not been validated / calibrated (particularly with respect to public transport), the National Trip End Model (NTEM) should not be used below district / county level, no uncertainty log has been prepared, it doesn’t include household survey data, and the data has not been adequately tested. Strategic models are not designed for use in a scheme specific assessment. The latter requires a revised forecast model produced from a recalibrated base year model using additional and more recent data with a more specific geographical focus of resources and modelling

Support

Local Plan 2040 Draft Plan - Strategy options and draft policies consultation

Representation ID: 4973

Received: 02/09/2021

Representation Summary:

The Transport Modelling undertaken by AECOM in support of the strategic options in the Draft Local Plan 2040 is fundamentally flawed for the following reasons.

No validation or calibration of the traffic model has been undertaken which is not in keeping with Department for Transport WebTAG guidance.

It is assumed that the Bedford Borough Transport Model was undertaken using Saturn, which was the model of choice for the Bedford Town Centre modelling project in 2015. In this case, Saturn cannot directly Model Public Transport therefore it is assumed that the engineers have made some significant assumptions with respect to public transport and trips being used, which have not been validated or calibrated.

TAG unit M1.2 introduces the National Trip End Model (NTEM). It includes forecasts of population, households, workforce and jobs over 30 years which are used in a series of models that forecast population, employment, car ownership, trip ends and traffic growth by Middle Layer Super Output Area (MSOA). The NTEM data set can be viewed using the TEMPro (Trip End Model Presentation Program) software. TEMPro estimates of trip ends at any level below aggregate regions (e.g. MSOA, district, or county level) are subject to uncertainty and should not be used as constraints in matrix development process without verification and possible adjustments. No uncertainty log was prepared which is a recommendation of WebTAG modelling guidance.

For direct use in matrix development, trip rate information estimated from household survey data should be considered instead to underpin trip end estimates at zone level. There is a risk that model may not be realistic or sensible due to the error around the model parameters used, or limitations in the extent to which the model can represent human behaviour. Therefore, before using any mathematical model, it is essential to check that it produces credible outputs consistent with observed behaviour. This is usually done by running the model for the base year (either the current year or a recent year), and:
• comparing its outputs with independent data (validation);
• checking that its response to changes in inputs is realistic, based on results from independent evidence (realism testing); and
• checking that the model responds appropriately to all its main inputs (sensitivity testing).
Five types of data can be collected and used to inform most models:
• data on the transport network, including the physical layout, number of lanes, signal timings, public transport frequencies and capacities;
• counts of vehicles or persons on transport services, links or at junctions;
• journey times;
• queue lengths at busy junctions;
• interview surveys, in which transport users are asked to describe trips either through household travel diaries or intercept surveys (e.g. roadside interviews, public transport onboard interview surveys.
These types of checks have not been undertaken to validate / calibrate the model.
AECOM have derived trip ends using CTripEnds for a number of journey purposes. Expanding synthetic trip ends produced by CTripEnd to the local zoning system is considered to be subject to significant discrepancies from observed especially if validation and the calibration exercise has not been undertaken.
It is also important to note that strategic models are not designed for use in a scheme specific assessment.



For such an assessment it is recommended a revised forecast model would be produced from a recalibrated base year model using additional and more recent data and targeted to reflect a more specific geographical focus of resources and modelling effort.

As part of the Bedford Borough Transport Model documents it is quoted that average departing trips are 20 to 25 vehicles, which may be below the trip rates assumed as part of a detailed development assessment. The extract below is taken from the New Settlement West of Wyboston document.



It is unknown what scenario of Dennybrook (site 977) development that the above “20 to 25 outbound car vehicle trips in the AM peak hour” relate to, however an outbound TRCS residential trip rate is somewhere between 0.23 to 0.33 vehicles per dwelling.
The development scenario ranges from 2,500 dwellings to 10,150 dwellings. On this basis and using a 0.25 departure trip rate results in 625 to 2,538 departing trips all of which would be home based departure trips. The model assumes 5 loading zones which therefore means there could be 125 to 508 vehicles per loading zone. This is significantly higher than the 20 to 25 outbound vehicle used by the AECOM model, assuming they have loaded it per node.
AECOM may claim that some of the departing trips will be internal and therefore will not cross cordon line however taking the 125 departing vehicle trips associated with 2,500 dwellings scenario; 20% of these departing vehicles are considered not to be leaving the area. This percentage decreases further if the worst case number of dwellings is being considered, i.e. 10,150 dwellings. It has previously been highlighted that the AECOM model has not be validated / calibrated and now given the apparent significant under valuation of the likely vehicle trips that will be generated, it is clear that the assessment of the capacity of junctions and the highway network is fundamentally flawed.

The significant undervaluation of generated vehicle trips could be argued by AECOM as being a reduction due to the impact of the public transport. However, the proposed new railway stations associated with the East West Rail Link are located to the east of the A1, which is significantly far enough away for the Dennybook development to be considered to not directly serve it without requiring a vehicle car trip to be generated. In this scenario it more likely that occupiers of Dennybrook (site 977) dwellings will continue their journey by car as opposed to transferring onto rail.

Given this all of the assessments undertaken by AECOM to determine the rerouting and vehicle km travelled for any scenario are highly unlikely to be representative.

Town planning principles are that new development should be centred on and around existing sustainable urban area where local infrastructure exists and allow residents to travel using public transport to serve the development which can be easily extended.

If larger new settlements are the only realistic option then they should be centred on transport hubs such as a new railway station so that they become the heart of the community and the de facto mode of travel. Locating a new settlement on the edge of town / out of town where the transport hub is also not well connected leads to a disjointed sustainable public transport which will always be second best to car travel.

Object

Local Plan 2040 Draft Plan - Strategy options and draft policies consultation

Representation ID: 5583

Received: 06/09/2021

Representation Summary:

The Transport Modelling undertaken by AECOM in support of the strategic options in the Draft Local Plan 2040 is fundamentally flawed for the following reasons.
No validation or calibration of the traffic model has been undertaken which is not in keeping with Department for Transport WebTAG guidance.
It is assumed that the Bedford Borough Transport Model was undertaken using Saturn, which was the model of choice for the Bedford Town Centre modelling project in 2015. In this case, Saturn cannot directly Model Public Transport therefore it is assumed that the engineers have made some significant assumptions with respect to public transport and trips being used, which have not been validated or calibrated.
TAG unit M1.2 introduces the National Trip End Model (NTEM). It includes forecasts of population, households, workforce and jobs over 30 years which are used in a series of models that forecast population, employment, car ownership, trip ends and traffic growth by Middle Layer Super Output Area (MSOA). The NTEM data set can be viewed using the TEMPro (Trip End Model Presentation Program) software. TEMPro estimates of trip ends at any level below aggregate regions (e.g. MSOA, district, or county level) are subject to uncertainty and should not be used as constraints in matrix development process without verification and possible adjustments. No uncertainty log was prepared which is a recommendation of WebTAG modelling guidance.
For direct use in matrix development, trip rate information estimated from household survey data should be considered instead to underpin trip end estimates at zone level. There is a risk that model may not be realistic or sensible due to the error around the model parameters used, or limitations in the extent to which the model can represent human behaviour. Therefore, before using any mathematical model, it is essential to check that it produces credible outputs consistent with observed behaviour. This is usually done by running the model for the base year (either the current year or a recent year), and:
• comparing its outputs with independent data (validation);
• checking that its response to changes in inputs is realistic, based on results from independent evidence (realism testing); and
• checking that the model responds appropriately to all its main inputs (sensitivity testing).
Five types of data can be collected and used to inform most models:
• data on the transport network, including the physical layout, number of lanes, signal timings, public transport frequencies and capacities;
• counts of vehicles or persons on transport services, links or at junctions;
• journey times;
• queue lengths at busy junctions;
• interview surveys, in which transport users are asked to describe trips either through household travel diaries or intercept surveys (e.g. roadside interviews, public transport onboard interview surveys.
These types of checks have not been undertaken to validate / calibrate the model.
AECOM have derived trip ends using CTripEnds for a number of journey purposes. Expanding synthetic trip ends produced by CTripEnd to the local zoning system is considered to be subject to significant discrepancies from observed especially if validation and the calibration exercise has not been undertaken.
It is also important to note that strategic models are not designed for use in a scheme specific assessment. For such an assessment it is recommended a revised forecast model would be produced from a recalibrated base year model using additional and more recent data and targeted to reflect a more specific geographical focus of resources and modelling effort.

As part of the Bedford Borough Transport Model documents it is quoted that average departing trips are 20 to 25 vehicles, which may be below the trip rates assumed as part of a detailed development assessment. The extract below is taken from the New Settlement West of Wyboston document.



It is unknown what scenario of Dennybrook (site 977) development that the above “20 to 25 outbound car vehicle trips in the AM peak hour” relate to, however an outbound TRCS residential trip rate is somewhere between 0.23 to 0.33 vehicles per dwelling.
The development scenario ranges from 2,500 dwellings to 10,150 dwellings. On this basis and using a 0.25 departure trip rate results in 625 to 2,538 departing trips all of which would be home based departure trips. The model assumes 5 loading zones which therefore means there could be 125 to 508 vehicles per loading zone. This is significantly higher than the 20 to 25 outbound vehicle used by the AECOM model, assuming they have loaded it per node.
AECOM may claim that some of the departing trips will be internal and therefore will not cross cordon line however taking the 125 departing vehicle trips associated with 2,500 dwellings scenario; 20% of these departing vehicles are considered not to be leaving the area. This percentage decreases further if the worst case number of dwellings is being considered, i.e. 10,150 dwellings. It has previously been highlighted that the AECOM model has not be validated / calibrated and now given the apparent significant under valuation of the likely vehicle trips that will be generated, it is clear that the assessment of the capacity of junctions and the highway network is fundamentally flawed.
The significant undervaluation of generated vehicle trips could be argued by AECOM as being a reduction due to the impact of the public transport. However, the proposed new railway stations associated with the East West Rail Link are located to the east of the A1, which is significantly far enough away for the Dennybook development to be considered to not directly serve it without requiring a vehicle car trip to be generated. In this scenario it more likely that occupiers of Dennybrook (site 977) dwellings will continue their journey by car as opposed to transferring onto rail.
Given this all of the assessments undertaken by AECOM to determine the rerouting and vehicle km travelled for any scenario are highly unlikely to be representative.
Town planning principles are that new development should be centred on and around existing sustainable urban area where local infrastructure exists and allow residents to travel using public transport to serve the development which can be easily extended.
If larger new settlements are the only realistic option then they should be centred on transport hubs such as a new railway station so that they become the heart of the community and the de facto mode of travel. Locating a new settlement on the edge of town / out of town where the transport hub is also not well connected leads to a disjointed sustainable public transport which will always be second best to car travel.

Object

Local Plan 2040 Draft Plan - Strategy options and draft policies consultation

Representation ID: 5633

Received: 07/09/2021

Representation Summary:

The transport model used by AECOM is fundamentally flawed because the model has not been validated / calibrated (particularly with respect to public transport), the National Trip End Model (NTEM) should not be used below district / county level, no uncertainty log has been prepared, it doesn’t include household survey data, and the data has not been adequately tested. Strategic models are not designed for use in a scheme specific assessment. The latter requires a revised forecast model produced from a recalibrated base year model using additional and more recent data with a more specific geographical focus of resources and modelling.

Object

Local Plan 2040 Draft Plan - Strategy options and draft policies consultation

Representation ID: 5685

Received: 07/09/2021

Representation Summary:

The Transport Modelling undertaken by AECOM in support of the strategic options in the Draft Local Plan 2040 is fundamentally flawed for the following reasons.
No validation or calibration of the traffic model has been undertaken which is not in keeping with Department for Transport WebTAG guidance.
It is assumed that the Bedford Borough Transport Model was undertaken using Saturn, which was the model of choice for the Bedford Town Centre modelling project in 2015. In this case, Saturn cannot directly Model Public Transport therefore it is assumed that the engineers have made some significant assumptions with respect to public transport and trips being used, which have not been validated or calibrated.
TAG unit M1.2 introduces the National Trip End Model (NTEM). It includes forecasts of population, households, workforce and jobs over 30 years which are used in a series of models that forecast population, employment, car ownership, trip ends and traffic growth by Middle Layer Super Output Area (MSOA). The NTEM data set can be viewed using the TEMPro (Trip End Model Presentation Program) software. TEMPro estimates of trip ends at any level below aggregate regions (e.g. MSOA, district, or county level) are subject to uncertainty and should not be used as constraints in matrix development process without verification and possible adjustments. No uncertainty log was prepared which is a recommendation of WebTAG modelling guidance.
For direct use in matrix development, trip rate information estimated from household survey data should be considered instead to underpin trip end estimates at zone level. There is a risk that model may not be realistic or sensible due to the error around the model parameters used, or limitations in the extent to which the model can represent human behaviour. Therefore, before using any mathematical model, it is essential to check that it produces credible outputs consistent with observed behaviour. This is usually done by running the model for the base year (either the current year or a recent year), and:
• comparing its outputs with independent data (validation);
• checking that its response to changes in inputs is realistic, based on results from independent evidence (realism testing); and
• checking that the model responds appropriately to all its main inputs (sensitivity testing).
Five types of data can be collected and used to inform most models:
• data on the transport network, including the physical layout, number of lanes, signal timings, public transport frequencies and capacities;
• counts of vehicles or persons on transport services, links or at junctions;
• journey times;
• queue lengths at busy junctions;
• interview surveys, in which transport users are asked to describe trips either through household travel diaries or intercept surveys (e.g. roadside interviews, public transport onboard interview surveys.
These types of checks have not been undertaken to validate / calibrate the model.
AECOM have derived trip ends using CTripEnds for a number of journey purposes. Expanding synthetic trip ends produced by CTripEnd to the local zoning system is considered to be subject to significant discrepancies from observed especially if validation and the calibration exercise has not been undertaken.
It is also important to note that strategic models are not designed for use in a scheme specific assessment. For such an assessment it is recommended a revised forecast model would be produced from a recalibrated base year model using additional and more recent data and targeted to reflect a more specific geographical focus of resources and modelling effort.

As part of the Bedford Borough Transport Model documents it is quoted that average departing trips are 20 to 25 vehicles, which may be below the trip rates assumed as part of a detailed development assessment. The extract below is taken from the New Settlement West of Wyboston document.



It is unknown what scenario of Dennybrook (site 977) development that the above “20 to 25 outbound car vehicle trips in the AM peak hour” relate to, however an outbound TRCS residential trip rate is somewhere between 0.23 to 0.33 vehicles per dwelling.
The development scenario ranges from 2,500 dwellings to 10,150 dwellings. On this basis and using a 0.25 departure trip rate results in 625 to 2,538 departing trips all of which would be home based departure trips. The model assumes 5 loading zones which therefore means there could be 125 to 508 vehicles per loading zone. This is significantly higher than the 20 to 25 outbound vehicle used by the AECOM model, assuming they have loaded it per node.
AECOM may claim that some of the departing trips will be internal and therefore will not cross cordon line however taking the 125 departing vehicle trips associated with 2,500 dwellings scenario; 20% of these departing vehicles are considered not to be leaving the area. This percentage decreases further if the worst case number of dwellings is being considered, i.e. 10,150 dwellings. It has previously been highlighted that the AECOM model has not be validated / calibrated and now given the apparent significant under valuation of the likely vehicle trips that will be generated, it is clear that the assessment of the capacity of junctions and the highway network is fundamentally flawed.
The significant undervaluation of generated vehicle trips could be argued by AECOM as being a reduction due to the impact of the public transport. However, the proposed new railway stations associated with the East West Rail Link are located to the east of the A1, which is significantly far enough away for the Dennybook development to be considered to not directly serve it without requiring a vehicle car trip to be generated. In this scenario it more likely that occupiers of Dennybrook (site 977) dwellings will continue their journey by car as opposed to transferring onto rail.
Given this all of the assessments undertaken by AECOM to determine the rerouting and vehicle km travelled for any scenario are highly unlikely to be representative.
Town planning principles are that new development should be centred on and around existing sustainable urban area where local infrastructure exists and allow residents to travel using public transport to serve the development which can be easily extended.
If larger new settlements are the only realistic option then they should be centred on transport hubs such as a new railway station so that they become the heart of the community and the de facto mode of travel. Locating a new settlement on the edge of town / out of town where the transport hub is also not well connected leads to a disjointed sustainable public transport which will always be second best to car travel.

Object

Local Plan 2040 Draft Plan - Strategy options and draft policies consultation

Representation ID: 5737

Received: 07/09/2021

Representation Summary:

The Transport Modelling undertaken by AECOM in support of the strategic options in the Draft Local Plan 2040 is fundamentally flawed for the following reasons.
No validation or calibration of the traffic model has been undertaken which is not in keeping with Department for Transport WebTAG guidance.
It is assumed that the Bedford Borough Transport Model was undertaken using Saturn, which was the model of choice for the Bedford Town Centre modelling project in 2015. In this case, Saturn cannot directly Model Public Transport therefore it is assumed that the engineers have made some significant assumptions with respect to public transport and trips being used, which have not been validated or calibrated.
TAG unit M1.2 introduces the National Trip End Model (NTEM). It includes forecasts of population, households, workforce and jobs over 30 years which are used in a series of models that forecast population, employment, car ownership, trip ends and traffic growth by Middle Layer Super Output Area (MSOA). The NTEM data set can be viewed using the TEMPro (Trip End Model Presentation Program) software. TEMPro estimates of trip ends at any level below aggregate regions (e.g. MSOA, district, or county level) are subject to uncertainty and should not be used as constraints in matrix development process without verification and possible adjustments. No uncertainty log was prepared which is a recommendation of WebTAG modelling guidance.
For direct use in matrix development, trip rate information estimated from household survey data should be considered instead to underpin trip end estimates at zone level. There is a risk that model may not be realistic or sensible due to the error around the model parameters used, or limitations in the extent to which the model can represent human behaviour. Therefore, before using any mathematical model, it is essential to check that it produces credible outputs consistent with observed behaviour. This is usually done by running the model for the base year (either the current year or a recent year), and:
• comparing its outputs with independent data (validation);
• checking that its response to changes in inputs is realistic, based on results from independent evidence (realism testing); and
• checking that the model responds appropriately to all its main inputs (sensitivity testing).
Five types of data can be collected and used to inform most models:
• data on the transport network, including the physical layout, number of lanes, signal timings, public transport frequencies and capacities;
• counts of vehicles or persons on transport services, links or at junctions;
• journey times;
• queue lengths at busy junctions;
• interview surveys, in which transport users are asked to describe trips either through household travel diaries or intercept surveys (e.g. roadside interviews, public transport onboard interview surveys.
These types of checks have not been undertaken to validate / calibrate the model.
AECOM have derived trip ends using CTripEnds for a number of journey purposes. Expanding synthetic trip ends produced by CTripEnd to the local zoning system is considered to be subject to significant discrepancies from observed especially if validation and the calibration exercise has not been undertaken.
It is also important to note that strategic models are not designed for use in a scheme specific assessment. For such an assessment it is recommended a revised forecast model would be produced from a recalibrated base year model using additional and more recent data and targeted to reflect a more specific geographical focus of resources and modelling effort.

As part of the Bedford Borough Transport Model documents it is quoted that average departing trips are 20 to 25 vehicles, which may be below the trip rates assumed as part of a detailed development assessment. The extract below is taken from the New Settlement West of Wyboston document.



It is unknown what scenario of Dennybrook (site 977) development that the above “20 to 25 outbound car vehicle trips in the AM peak hour” relate to, however an outbound TRCS residential trip rate is somewhere between 0.23 to 0.33 vehicles per dwelling.
The development scenario ranges from 2,500 dwellings to 10,150 dwellings. On this basis and using a 0.25 departure trip rate results in 625 to 2,538 departing trips all of which would be home based departure trips. The model assumes 5 loading zones which therefore means there could be 125 to 508 vehicles per loading zone. This is significantly higher than the 20 to 25 outbound vehicle used by the AECOM model, assuming they have loaded it per node.
AECOM may claim that some of the departing trips will be internal and therefore will not cross cordon line however taking the 125 departing vehicle trips associated with 2,500 dwellings scenario; 20% of these departing vehicles are considered not to be leaving the area. This percentage decreases further if the worst case number of dwellings is being considered, i.e. 10,150 dwellings. It has previously been highlighted that the AECOM model has not be validated / calibrated and now given the apparent significant under valuation of the likely vehicle trips that will be generated, it is clear that the assessment of the capacity of junctions and the highway network is fundamentally flawed.
The significant undervaluation of generated vehicle trips could be argued by AECOM as being a reduction due to the impact of the public transport. However, the proposed new railway stations associated with the East West Rail Link are located to the east of the A1, which is significantly far enough away for the Dennybook development to be considered to not directly serve it without requiring a vehicle car trip to be generated. In this scenario it more likely that occupiers of Dennybrook (site 977) dwellings will continue their journey by car as opposed to transferring onto rail.
Given this all of the assessments undertaken by AECOM to determine the rerouting and vehicle km travelled for any scenario are highly unlikely to be representative.
Town planning principles are that new development should be centred on and around existing sustainable urban area where local infrastructure exists and allow residents to travel using public transport to serve the development which can be easily extended.
If larger new settlements are the only realistic option then they should be centred on transport hubs such as a new railway station so that they become the heart of the community and the de facto mode of travel. Locating a new settlement on the edge of town / out of town where the transport hub is also not well connected leads to a disjointed sustainable public transport which will always be second best to car travel.

Object

Local Plan 2040 Draft Plan - Strategy options and draft policies consultation

Representation ID: 5773

Received: 07/09/2021

Representation Summary:

• The Transport Modelling undertaken by AECOM in support of the strategic options in the Draft Local Plan 2040 is fundamentally flawed for the following reasons.
• No validation or calibration of the traffic model has been undertaken which is not in keeping with Department for Transport WebTAG guidance.
• It is assumed that the Bedford Borough Transport Model was undertaken using Saturn, which was the model of choice for the Bedford Town Centre modelling project in 2015. In this case, Saturn cannot directly Model Public Transport therefore it is assumed that the engineers have made some significant assumptions with respect to public transport and trips being used, which have not been validated or calibrated.
• TAG unit M1.2 introduces the National Trip End Model (NTEM). It includes forecasts of population, households, workforce and jobs over 30 years which are used in a series of models that forecast population, employment, car ownership, trip ends and traffic growth by Middle Layer Super Output Area (MSOA). The NTEM data set can be viewed using the TEMPro (Trip End Model Presentation Program) software. TEMPro estimates of trip ends at any level below aggregate regions (e.g. MSOA, district, or county level) are subject to uncertainty and should not be used as constraints in matrix development process without verification and possible adjustments. No uncertainty log was prepared which is a recommendation of WebTAG modelling guidance.
• For direct use in matrix development, trip rate information estimated from household survey data should be considered instead to underpin trip end estimates at zone level. There is a risk that model may not be realistic or sensible due to the error around the model parameters used, or limitations in the extent to which the model can represent human behaviour. Therefore, before using any mathematical model, it is essential to check that it produces credible outputs consistent with observed behaviour. This is usually done by running the model for the base year (either the current year or a recent year), and:
• comparing its outputs with independent data (validation);
• checking that its response to changes in inputs is realistic, based on results from independent evidence (realism testing); and
• checking that the model responds appropriately to all its main inputs (sensitivity testing).
• Five types of data can be collected and used to inform most models:
• data on the transport network, including the physical layout, number of lanes, signal timings, public transport frequencies and capacities;
• counts of vehicles or persons on transport services, links or at junctions;
• journey times;
• queue lengths at busy junctions;
• interview surveys, in which transport users are asked to describe trips either through household travel diaries or intercept surveys (e.g. roadside interviews, public transport onboard interview surveys.
• These types of checks have not been undertaken to validate / calibrate the model.
• AECOM have derived trip ends using CTripEnds for a number of journey purposes. Expanding synthetic trip ends produced by CTripEnd to the local zoning system is considered to be subject to significant discrepancies from observed especially if validation and the calibration exercise has not been undertaken.
• It is also important to note that strategic models are not designed for use in a scheme specific assessment. For such an assessment it is recommended a revised forecast model would be produced from a recalibrated base year model using additional and more recent data and targeted to reflect a more specific geographical focus of resources and modelling effort.
As part of the Bedford Borough Transport Model documents it is quoted that average departing trips are 20 to 25 vehicles, which may be below the trip rates assumed as part of a detailed development assessment. The extract below is taken from the New Settlement West of Wyboston document. (extract of document inserted)
It is unknown what scenario of Dennybrook (site 977) development that the above “20 to 25 outbound car vehicle trips in the AM peak hour” relate to, however an outbound TRCS residential trip rate is somewhere between 0.23 to 0.33 vehicles per dwelling.
The development scenario ranges from 2,500 dwellings to 10,150 dwellings. On this basis and using a 0.25 departure trip rate results in 625 to 2,538 departing trips all of which would be home based departure trips. The model assumes 5 loading zones which therefore means there could be 125 to 508 vehicles per loading zone. This is significantly higher than the 20 to 25 outbound vehicle used by the AECOM model, assuming they have loaded it per node.
AECOM may claim that some of the departing trips will be internal and therefore will not cross cordon line however taking the 125 departing vehicle trips associated with 2,500 dwellings scenario; 20% of these departing vehicles are considered not to be leaving the area. This percentage decreases further if the worst case number of dwellings is being considered, i.e. 10,150 dwellings. It has previously been highlighted that the AECOM model has not be validated / calibrated and now given the apparent significant under valuation of the likely vehicle trips that will be generated, it is clear that the assessment of the capacity of junctions and the highway network is fundamentally flawed.
The significant undervaluation of generated vehicle trips could be argued by AECOM as being a reduction due to the impact of the public transport. However, the proposed new railway stations associated with the East West Rail Link are located to the east of the A1, which is significantly far enough away for the Dennybook development to be considered to not directly serve it without requiring a vehicle car trip to be generated. In this scenario it more likely that occupiers of Dennybrook (site 977) dwellings will continue their journey by car as opposed to transferring onto rail.
Given this all of the assessments undertaken by AECOM to determine the rerouting and vehicle km travelled for any scenario are highly unlikely to be representative.
Town planning principles are that new development should be centred on and around existing sustainable urban area where local infrastructure exists and allow residents to travel using public transport to serve the development which can be easily extended.
If larger new settlements are the only realistic option then they should be centred on transport hubs such as a new railway station so that they become the heart of the community and the de facto mode of travel. Locating a new settlement on the edge of town / out of town where the transport hub is also not well connected leads to a disjointed sustainable public transport which will always be second best to car travel.
100-word summary
The transport model used by AECOM is fundamentally flawed because the model has not been validated / calibrated (particularly with respect to public transport), the National Trip End Model (NTEM) should not be used below district / county level, no uncertainty log has been prepared, it doesn’t include household survey data, and the data has not been adequately tested. Strategic models are not designed for use in a scheme specific assessment. The latter requires a revised forecast model produced from a recalibrated base year model using additional and more recent data with a more specific geographical focus of resources and modelling.

Object

Local Plan 2040 Draft Plan - Strategy options and draft policies consultation

Representation ID: 5845

Received: 08/09/2021

Representation Summary:

The Transport Modelling undertaken by AECOM in support of the strategic options in the Draft Local Plan 2040 is fundamentally flawed for the following reasons.
No validation or calibration of the traffic model has been undertaken which is not in keeping with Department for Transport WebTAG guidance.
It is assumed that the Bedford Borough Transport Model was undertaken using Saturn, which was the model of choice for the Bedford Town Centre modelling project in 2015. In this case, Saturn cannot directly Model Public Transport therefore it is assumed that the engineers have made some significant assumptions with respect to public transport and trips being used, which have not been validated or calibrated.
TAG unit M1.2 introduces the National Trip End Model (NTEM). It includes forecasts of population, households, workforce and jobs over 30 years which are used in a series of models that forecast population, employment, car ownership, trip ends and traffic growth by Middle Layer Super Output Area (MSOA). The NTEM data set can be viewed using the TEMPro (Trip End Model Presentation Program) software. TEMPro estimates of trip ends at any level below aggregate regions (e.g. MSOA, district, or county level) are subject to uncertainty and should not be used as constraints in matrix development process without verification and possible adjustments. No uncertainty log was prepared which is a recommendation of WebTAG modelling guidance.
For direct use in matrix development, trip rate information estimated from household survey data should be considered instead to underpin trip end estimates at zone level. There is a risk that model may not be realistic or sensible due to the error around the model parameters used, or limitations in the extent to which the model can represent human behaviour. Therefore, before using any mathematical model, it is essential to check that it produces credible outputs consistent with observed behaviour. This is usually done by running the model for the base year (either the current year or a recent year), and:
• comparing its outputs with independent data (validation);
• checking that its response to changes in inputs is realistic, based on results from independent evidence (realism testing); and
• checking that the model responds appropriately to all its main inputs (sensitivity testing).
Five types of data can be collected and used to inform most models:
• data on the transport network, including the physical layout, number of lanes, signal timings, public transport frequencies and capacities;
• counts of vehicles or persons on transport services, links or at junctions;
• journey times;
• queue lengths at busy junctions;
• interview surveys, in which transport users are asked to describe trips either through household travel diaries or intercept surveys (e.g. roadside interviews, public transport onboard interview surveys.
These types of checks have not been undertaken to validate / calibrate the model.
AECOM have derived trip ends using CTripEnds for a number of journey purposes. Expanding synthetic trip ends produced by CTripEnd to the local zoning system is considered to be subject to significant discrepancies from observed especially if validation and the calibration exercise has not been undertaken.
It is also important to note that strategic models are not designed for use in a scheme specific assessment. For such an assessment it is recommended a revised forecast model would be produced from a recalibrated base year model using additional and more recent data and targeted to reflect a more specific geographical focus of resources and modelling effort.

As part of the Bedford Borough Transport Model documents it is quoted that average departing trips are 20 to 25 vehicles, which may be below the trip rates assumed as part of a detailed development assessment. The extract below is taken from the New Settlement West of Wyboston document. (Extract of document inserted here).
It is unknown what scenario of Dennybrook (site 977) development that the above “20 to 25 outbound car vehicle trips in the AM peak hour” relate to, however an outbound TRCS residential trip rate is somewhere between 0.23 to 0.33 vehicles per dwelling.
The development scenario ranges from 2,500 dwellings to 10,150 dwellings. On this basis and using a 0.25 departure trip rate results in 625 to 2,538 departing trips all of which would be home based departure trips. The model assumes 5 loading zones which therefore means there could be 125 to 508 vehicles per loading zone. This is significantly higher than the 20 to 25 outbound vehicle used by the AECOM model, assuming they have loaded it per node.
AECOM may claim that some of the departing trips will be internal and therefore will not cross cordon line however taking the 125 departing vehicle trips associated with 2,500 dwellings scenario; 20% of these departing vehicles are considered not to be leaving the area. This percentage decreases further if the worst case number of dwellings is being considered, i.e. 10,150 dwellings. It has previously been highlighted that the AECOM model has not be validated / calibrated and now given the apparent significant under valuation of the likely vehicle trips that will be generated, it is clear that the assessment of the capacity of junctions and the highway network is fundamentally flawed.
The significant undervaluation of generated vehicle trips could be argued by AECOM as being a reduction due to the impact of the public transport. However, the proposed new railway stations associated with the East West Rail Link are located to the east of the A1, which is significantly far enough away for the Dennybook development to be considered to not directly serve it without requiring a vehicle car trip to be generated. In this scenario it more likely that occupiers of Dennybrook (site 977) dwellings will continue their journey by car as opposed to transferring onto rail.
Given this all of the assessments undertaken by AECOM to determine the rerouting and vehicle km travelled for any scenario are highly unlikely to be representative.
Town planning principles are that new development should be centred on and around existing sustainable urban area where local infrastructure exists and allow residents to travel using public transport to serve the development which can be easily extended.
If larger new settlements are the only realistic option then they should be centred on transport hubs such as a new railway station so that they become the heart of the community and the de facto mode of travel. Locating a new settlement on the edge of town / out of town where the transport hub is also not well connected leads to a disjointed sustainable public transport which will always be second best to car travel.
100 word summary
The transport model used by AECOM is fundamentally flawed because the model has not been validated / calibrated (particularly with respect to public transport), the National Trip End Model (NTEM) should not be used below district / county level, no uncertainty log has been prepared, it doesn’t include household survey data, and the data has not been adequately tested. Strategic models are not designed for use in a scheme specific assessment. The latter requires a revised forecast model produced from a recalibrated base year model using additional and more recent data with a more specific geographical focus of resources and modelling.

Object

Local Plan 2040 Draft Plan - Strategy options and draft policies consultation

Representation ID: 5918

Received: 08/09/2021

Representation Summary:

1.3.3 Highlights the fact that the volume-capacity ratios at the Clapham Road / Manton Lane junction in the 2030 reference case will be at full capacity, with a volume-capacity ratio of 100%. This is an issue that BBC need to resolve independently of any allocations for development in Local Plan 2040.
1.3.7 In the same reference case there will also be capacity issues on the A421 South of Bedford that may require the A421 being upgraded from a two lane to a tree lane dual carriageway.
These issues confirm that in the reference case at 2030 the East-West artery through the borough will be at capacity – i.e. without major infrastructure improvements, the borough cannot cope with the additional development requirements in Local Plan 2040. This fact needs to be fed back to HMG who are setting the excessive development targets for the borough.
1.4.3 and 1.4.4. The conclusions in these paragraphs require review given the comments above in items 1.24, 1.25 and 1.26 regarding the flawed nature of the models and the failure to account for actual conditions and safety issues.

Object

Local Plan 2040 Draft Plan - Strategy options and draft policies consultation

Representation ID: 5965

Received: 08/09/2021

Representation Summary:

The Transport Modelling undertaken by AECOM in support of the strategic options in the Draft Local Plan 2040 is fundamentally flawed for the following reasons.

No validation or calibration of the traffic model has been undertaken which is not in keeping with Department for Transport WebTAG guidance.

It is assumed that the Bedford Borough Transport Model was undertaken using Saturn, which was the model of choice for the Bedford Town Centre modelling project in 2015. In this case, Saturn cannot directly Model Public Transport therefore it is assumed that the engineers have made some significant assumptions with respect to public transport and trips being used, which have not been validated or calibrated.

TAG unit M1.2 introduces the National Trip End Model (NTEM). It includes forecasts of population, households, workforce and jobs over 30 years which are used in a series of models that forecast population, employment, car ownership, trip ends and traffic growth by Middle Layer Super Output Area (MSOA). The NTEM data set can be viewed using the TEMPro (Trip End Model Presentation Program) software. TEMPro estimates of trip ends at any level below aggregate regions (e.g. MSOA, district, or county level) are subject to uncertainty and should not be used as constraints in matrix development process without verification and possible adjustments. No uncertainty log was prepared which is a recommendation of WebTAG modelling guidance.

For direct use in matrix development, trip rate information estimated from household survey data should be considered instead to underpin trip end estimates at zone level. There is a risk that model may not be realistic or sensible due to the error around the model parameters used, or limitations in the extent to which the model can represent human behaviour. Therefore, before using any mathematical model, it is essential to check that it produces credible outputs consistent with observed behaviour. This is usually done by running the model for the base year (either the current year or a recent year), and:
• comparing its outputs with independent data (validation);
• checking that its response to changes in inputs is realistic, based on results from independent evidence (realism testing); and
• checking that the model responds appropriately to all its main inputs (sensitivity testing).
Five types of data can be collected and used to inform most models:
• data on the transport network, including the physical layout, number of lanes, signal timings, public transport frequencies and capacities;
• counts of vehicles or persons on transport services, links or at junctions;
• journey times;
• queue lengths at busy junctions;
• interview surveys, in which transport users are asked to describe trips either through household travel diaries or intercept surveys (e.g. roadside interviews, public transport onboard interview surveys.
These types of checks have not been undertaken to validate / calibrate the model.
AECOM have derived trip ends using CTripEnds for a number of journey purposes. Expanding synthetic trip ends produced by CTripEnd to the local zoning system is considered to be subject to significant discrepancies from observed especially if validation and the calibration exercise has not been undertaken.
It is also important to note that strategic models are not designed for use in a scheme specific assessment. For such an assessment it is recommended a revised forecast model would be produced from a recalibrated base year model using additional and more recent data and targeted to reflect a more specific geographical focus of resources and modelling effort.
As part of the Bedford Borough Transport Model documents it is quoted that average departing trips are 20 to 25 vehicles, which may be below the trip rates assumed as part of a detailed development assessment. The extract below is taken from the New Settlement West of Wyboston document. [Extract inserted here.]
It is unknown what scenario of Dennybrook (site 977) development that the above “20 to 25 outbound car vehicle trips in the AM peak hour” relate to, however an outbound TRCS residential trip rate is somewhere between 0.23 to 0.33 vehicles per dwelling.

The development scenario ranges from 2,500 dwellings to 10,150 dwellings. On this basis and using a 0.25 departure trip rate results in 625 to 2,538 departing trips all of which would be home based departure trips. The model assumes 5 loading zones which therefore means there could be 125 to 508 vehicles per loading zone. This is significantly higher than the 20 to 25 outbound vehicle used by the AECOM model, assuming they have loaded it per node.

AECOM may claim that some of the departing trips will be internal and therefore will not cross cordon line however taking the 125 departing vehicle trips associated with 2,500 dwellings scenario; 20% of these departing vehicles are considered not to be leaving the area. This percentage decreases further if the worst case number of dwellings is being considered, i.e. 10,150 dwellings. It has previously been highlighted that the AECOM model has not be validated / calibrated and now given the apparent significant under valuation of the likely vehicle trips that will be generated, it is clear that the assessment of the capacity of junctions and the highway network is fundamentally flawed.

The significant undervaluation of generated vehicle trips could be argued by AECOM as being a reduction due to the impact of the public transport. However, the proposed new railway stations associated with the East West Rail Link are located to the east of the A1, which is significantly far enough away for the Dennybook development to be considered to not directly serve it without requiring a vehicle car trip to be generated. In this scenario it more likely that occupiers of Dennybrook (site 977) dwellings will continue their journey by car as opposed to transferring onto rail.

Given this all of the assessments undertaken by AECOM to determine the rerouting and vehicle km travelled for any scenario are highly unlikely to be representative.

Town planning principles are that new development should be centred on and around existing sustainable urban area where local infrastructure exists and allow residents to travel using public transport to serve the development which can be easily extended.

If larger new settlements are the only realistic option then they should be centred on transport hubs such as a new railway station so that they become the heart of the community and the de facto mode of travel. Locating a new settlement on the edge of town / out of town where the transport hub is also not well connected leads to a disjointed sustainable public transport which will always be second best to car travel.
100 word summary
The transport model used by AECOM is fundamentally flawed because the model has not been validated / calibrated (particularly with respect to public transport), the National Trip End Model (NTEM) should not be used below district / county level, no uncertainty log has been prepared, it doesn’t include household survey data, and the data has not been adequately tested. Strategic models are not designed for use in a scheme specific assessment. The latter requires a revised forecast model produced from a recalibrated base year model using additional and more recent data with a more specific geographical focus of resources and modelling.

Object

Local Plan 2040 Draft Plan - Strategy options and draft policies consultation

Representation ID: 6006

Received: 08/09/2021

Representation Summary:

The Transport Modelling undertaken by AECOM in support of the strategic options in the Draft Local Plan 2040 is fundamentally flawed for the following reasons.
No validation or calibration of the traffic model has been undertaken which is not in keeping with Department for Transport WebTAG guidance.
It is assumed that the Bedford Borough Transport Model was undertaken using Saturn, which was the model of choice for the Bedford Town Centre modelling project in 2015. In this case, Saturn cannot directly Model Public Transport therefore it is assumed that the engineers have made some significant assumptions with respect to public transport and trips being used, which have not been validated or calibrated.
TAG unit M1.2 introduces the National Trip End Model (NTEM). It includes forecasts of population, households, workforce and jobs over 30 years which are used in a series of models that forecast population, employment, car ownership, trip ends and traffic growth by Middle Layer Super Output Area (MSOA). The NTEM data set can be viewed using the TEMPro (Trip End Model Presentation Program) software. TEMPro estimates of trip ends at any level below aggregate regions (e.g. MSOA, district, or county level) are subject to uncertainty and should not be used as constraints in matrix development process without verification and possible adjustments. No uncertainty log was prepared which is a recommendation of WebTAG modelling guidance.
For direct use in matrix development, trip rate information estimated from household survey data should be considered instead to underpin trip end estimates at zone level. There is a risk that model may not be realistic or sensible due to the error around the model parameters used, or limitations in the extent to which the model can represent human behaviour. Therefore, before using any mathematical model, it is essential to check that it produces credible outputs consistent with observed behaviour. This is usually done by running the model for the base year (either the current year or a recent year), and:
• comparing its outputs with independent data (validation);
• checking that its response to changes in inputs is realistic, based on results from independent evidence (realism testing); and
• checking that the model responds appropriately to all its main inputs (sensitivity testing).
Five types of data can be collected and used to inform most models:
• data on the transport network, including the physical layout, number of lanes, signal timings, public transport frequencies and capacities;
• counts of vehicles or persons on transport services, links or at junctions;
• journey times;
• queue lengths at busy junctions;
• interview surveys, in which transport users are asked to describe trips either through household travel diaries or intercept surveys (e.g. roadside interviews, public transport onboard interview surveys.
These types of checks have not been undertaken to validate / calibrate the model.
AECOM have derived trip ends using CTripEnds for a number of journey purposes. Expanding synthetic trip ends produced by CTripEnd to the local zoning system is considered to be subject to significant discrepancies from observed especially if validation and the calibration exercise has not been undertaken.
It is also important to note that strategic models are not designed for use in a scheme specific assessment. For such an assessment it is recommended a revised forecast model would be produced from a recalibrated base year model using additional and more recent data and targeted to reflect a more specific geographical focus of resources and modelling effort.

As part of the Bedford Borough Transport Model documents it is quoted that average departing trips are 20 to 25 vehicles, which may be below the trip rates assumed as part of a detailed development assessment. The extract below is taken from the New Settlement West of Wyboston document.



It is unknown what scenario of Dennybrook (site 977) development that the above “20 to 25 outbound car vehicle trips in the AM peak hour” relate to, however an outbound TRCS residential trip rate is somewhere between 0.23 to 0.33 vehicles per dwelling.
The development scenario ranges from 2,500 dwellings to 10,150 dwellings. On this basis and using a 0.25 departure trip rate results in 625 to 2,538 departing trips all of which would be home based departure trips. The model assumes 5 loading zones which therefore means there could be 125 to 508 vehicles per loading zone. This is significantly higher than the 20 to 25 outbound vehicle used by the AECOM model, assuming they have loaded it per node.
AECOM may claim that some of the departing trips will be internal and therefore will not cross cordon line however taking the 125 departing vehicle trips associated with 2,500 dwellings scenario; 20% of these departing vehicles are considered not to be leaving the area. This percentage decreases further if the worst case number of dwellings is being considered, i.e. 10,150 dwellings. It has previously been highlighted that the AECOM model has not be validated / calibrated and now given the apparent significant under valuation of the likely vehicle trips that will be generated, it is clear that the assessment of the capacity of junctions and the highway network is fundamentally flawed.
The significant undervaluation of generated vehicle trips could be argued by AECOM as being a reduction due to the impact of the public transport. However, the proposed new railway stations associated with the East West Rail Link are located to the east of the A1, which is significantly far enough away for the Dennybook development to be considered to not directly serve it without requiring a vehicle car trip to be generated. In this scenario it more likely that occupiers of Dennybrook (site 977) dwellings will continue their journey by car as opposed to transferring onto rail.
Given this all of the assessments undertaken by AECOM to determine the rerouting and vehicle km travelled for any scenario are highly unlikely to be representative.
Town planning principles are that new development should be centred on and around existing sustainable urban area where local infrastructure exists and allow residents to travel using public transport to serve the development which can be easily extended.
If larger new settlements are the only realistic option then they should be centred on transport hubs such as a new railway station so that they become the heart of the community and the de facto mode of travel. Locating a new settlement on the edge of town / out of town where the transport hub is also not well connected leads to a disjointed sustainable public transport which will always be second best to car travel.

Object

Local Plan 2040 Draft Plan - Strategy options and draft policies consultation

Representation ID: 6100

Received: 09/09/2021

Representation Summary:

The Transport Modelling undertaken by AECOM in support of the strategic options in the Draft Local Plan 2040 is fundamentally flawed for the following reasons.

No validation or calibration of the traffic model has been undertaken which is not in keeping with Department for Transport WebTAG guidance.

It is assumed that the Bedford Borough Transport Model was undertaken using Saturn, which was the model of choice for the Bedford Town Centre modelling project in 2015. In this case, Saturn cannot directly Model Public Transport therefore it is assumed that the engineers have made some significant assumptions with respect to public transport and trips being used, which have not been validated or calibrated.

TAG unit M1.2 introduces the National Trip End Model (NTEM). It includes forecasts of population, households, workforce and jobs over 30 years which are used in a series of models that forecast population, employment, car ownership, trip ends and traffic growth by Middle Layer Super Output Area (MSOA). The NTEM data set can be viewed using the TEMPro (Trip End Model Presentation Program) software. TEMPro estimates of trip ends at any level below aggregate regions (e.g. MSOA, district, or county level) are subject to uncertainty and should not be used as constraints in matrix development process without verification and possible adjustments. No uncertainty log was prepared which is a recommendation of WebTAG modelling guidance.

For direct use in matrix development, trip rate information estimated from household survey data should be considered instead to underpin trip end estimates at zone level. There is a risk that model may not be realistic or sensible due to the error around the model parameters used, or limitations in the extent to which the model can represent human behaviour. Therefore, before using any mathematical model, it is essential to check that it produces credible outputs consistent with observed behaviour. This is usually done by running the model for the base year (either the current year or a recent year), and:
• comparing its outputs with independent data (validation);
• checking that its response to changes in inputs is realistic, based on results from independent evidence (realism testing); and
• checking that the model responds appropriately to all its main inputs (sensitivity testing).
Five types of data can be collected and used to inform most models:
• data on the transport network, including the physical layout, number of lanes, signal timings, public transport frequencies and capacities;
• counts of vehicles or persons on transport services, links or at junctions;
• journey times;
• queue lengths at busy junctions;
• interview surveys, in which transport users are asked to describe trips either through household travel diaries or intercept surveys (e.g. roadside interviews, public transport onboard interview surveys.
These types of checks have not been undertaken to validate / calibrate the model.
AECOM have derived trip ends using CTripEnds for a number of journey purposes. Expanding synthetic trip ends produced by CTripEnd to the local zoning system is considered to be subject to significant discrepancies from observed especially if validation and the calibration exercise has not been undertaken.
It is also important to note that strategic models are not designed for use in a scheme specific assessment.



For such an assessment it is recommended a revised forecast model would be produced from a recalibrated base year model using additional and more recent data and targeted to reflect a more specific geographical focus of resources and modelling effort.

As part of the Bedford Borough Transport Model documents it is quoted that average departing trips are 20 to 25 vehicles, which may be below the trip rates assumed as part of a detailed development assessment. The extract below is taken from the New Settlement West of Wyboston document.



It is unknown what scenario of Dennybrook (site 977) development that the above “20 to 25 outbound car vehicle trips in the AM peak hour” relate to, however an outbound TRCS residential trip rate is somewhere between 0.23 to 0.33 vehicles per dwelling.
The development scenario ranges from 2,500 dwellings to 10,150 dwellings. On this basis and using a 0.25 departure trip rate results in 625 to 2,538 departing trips all of which would be home based departure trips. The model assumes 5 loading zones which therefore means there could be 125 to 508 vehicles per loading zone. This is significantly higher than the 20 to 25 outbound vehicle used by the AECOM model, assuming they have loaded it per node.
AECOM may claim that some of the departing trips will be internal and therefore will not cross cordon line however taking the 125 departing vehicle trips associated with 2,500 dwellings scenario; 20% of these departing vehicles are considered not to be leaving the area. This percentage decreases further if the worst case number of dwellings is being considered, i.e. 10,150 dwellings. It has previously been highlighted that the AECOM model has not be validated / calibrated and now given the apparent significant under valuation of the likely vehicle trips that will be generated, it is clear that the assessment of the capacity of junctions and the highway network is fundamentally flawed.

The significant undervaluation of generated vehicle trips could be argued by AECOM as being a reduction due to the impact of the public transport. However, the proposed new railway stations associated with the East West Rail Link are located to the east of the A1, which is significantly far enough away for the Dennybook development to be considered to not directly serve it without requiring a vehicle car trip to be generated. In this scenario it more likely that occupiers of Dennybrook (site 977) dwellings will continue their journey by car as opposed to transferring onto rail.

Given this all of the assessments undertaken by AECOM to determine the rerouting and vehicle km travelled for any scenario are highly unlikely to be representative.

Town planning principles are that new development should be centred on and around existing sustainable urban area where local infrastructure exists and allow residents to travel using public transport to serve the development which can be easily extended.

If larger new settlements are the only realistic option then they should be centred on transport hubs such as a new railway station so that they become the heart of the community and the de facto mode of travel. Locating a new settlement on the edge of town / out of town where the transport hub is also not well connected leads to a disjointed sustainable public transport which will always be second best to car travel.

Object

Local Plan 2040 Draft Plan - Strategy options and draft policies consultation

Representation ID: 6204

Received: 09/09/2021

Representation Summary:

The Transport Modelling undertaken by AECOM in support of the strategic options in the Draft Local Plan 2040 is fundamentally flawed for the following reasons.
No validation or calibration of the traffic model has been undertaken which is not in keeping with Department for Transport WebTAG guidance.
It is assumed that the Bedford Borough Transport Model was undertaken using Saturn, which was the model of choice for the Bedford Town Centre modelling project in 2015. In this case, Saturn cannot directly Model Public Transport therefore it is assumed that the engineers have made some significant assumptions with respect to public transport and trips being used, which have not been validated or calibrated.
TAG unit M1.2 introduces the National Trip End Model (NTEM). It includes forecasts of population, households, workforce and jobs over 30 years which are used in a series of models that forecast population, employment, car ownership, trip ends and traffic growth by Middle Layer Super Output Area (MSOA). The NTEM data set can be viewed using the TEMPro (Trip End Model Presentation Program) software. TEMPro estimates of trip ends at any level below aggregate regions (e.g. MSOA, district, or county level) are subject to uncertainty and should not be used as constraints in matrix development process without verification and possible adjustments. No uncertainty log was prepared which is a recommendation of WebTAG modelling guidance.
For direct use in matrix development, trip rate information estimated from household survey data should be considered instead to underpin trip end estimates at zone level. There is a risk that model may not be realistic or sensible due to the error around the model parameters used, or limitations in the extent to which the model can represent human behaviour. Therefore, before using any mathematical model, it is essential to check that it produces credible outputs consistent with observed behaviour. This is usually done by running the model for the base year (either the current year or a recent year), and:
• comparing its outputs with independent data (validation);
• checking that its response to changes in inputs is realistic, based on results from independent evidence (realism testing); and
• checking that the model responds appropriately to all its main inputs (sensitivity testing).
Five types of data can be collected and used to inform most models:
• data on the transport network, including the physical layout, number of lanes, signal timings, public transport frequencies and capacities;
• counts of vehicles or persons on transport services, links or at junctions;
• journey times;
• queue lengths at busy junctions;
• interview surveys, in which transport users are asked to describe trips either through household travel diaries or intercept surveys (e.g. roadside interviews, public transport onboard interview surveys.
These types of checks have not been undertaken to validate / calibrate the model.
AECOM have derived trip ends using CTripEnds for a number of journey purposes. Expanding synthetic trip ends produced by CTripEnd to the local zoning system is considered to be subject to significant discrepancies from observed especially if validation and the calibration exercise has not been undertaken.
It is also important to note that strategic models are not designed for use in a scheme specific assessment. For such an assessment it is recommended a revised forecast model would be produced from a recalibrated base year model using additional and more recent data and targeted to reflect a more specific geographical focus of resources and modelling effort.

As part of the Bedford Borough Transport Model documents it is quoted that average departing trips are 20 to 25 vehicles, which may be below the trip rates assumed as part of a detailed development assessment. The extract below is taken from the New Settlement West of Wyboston document.



It is unknown what scenario of Dennybrook (site 977) development that the above “20 to 25 outbound car vehicle trips in the AM peak hour” relate to, however an outbound TRCS residential trip rate is somewhere between 0.23 to 0.33 vehicles per dwelling.
The development scenario ranges from 2,500 dwellings to 10,150 dwellings. On this basis and using a 0.25 departure trip rate results in 625 to 2,538 departing trips all of which would be home based departure trips. The model assumes 5 loading zones which therefore means there could be 125 to 508 vehicles per loading zone. This is significantly higher than the 20 to 25 outbound vehicle used by the AECOM model, assuming they have loaded it per node.
AECOM may claim that some of the departing trips will be internal and therefore will not cross cordon line however taking the 125 departing vehicle trips associated with 2,500 dwellings scenario; 20% of these departing vehicles are considered not to be leaving the area. This percentage decreases further if the worst case number of dwellings is being considered, i.e. 10,150 dwellings. It has previously been highlighted that the AECOM model has not be validated / calibrated and now given the apparent significant under valuation of the likely vehicle trips that will be generated, it is clear that the assessment of the capacity of junctions and the highway network is fundamentally flawed.
The significant undervaluation of generated vehicle trips could be argued by AECOM as being a reduction due to the impact of the public transport. However, the proposed new railway stations associated with the East West Rail Link are located to the east of the A1, which is significantly far enough away for the Dennybook development to be considered to not directly serve it without requiring a vehicle car trip to be generated. In this scenario it more likely that occupiers of Dennybrook (site 977) dwellings will continue their journey by car as opposed to transferring onto rail.
Given this all of the assessments undertaken by AECOM to determine the rerouting and vehicle km travelled for any scenario are highly unlikely to be representative.
Town planning principles are that new development should be centred on and around existing sustainable urban area where local infrastructure exists and allow residents to travel using public transport to serve the development which can be easily extended.
If larger new settlements are the only realistic option then they should be centred on transport hubs such as a new railway station so that they become the heart of the community and the de facto mode of travel. Locating a new settlement on the edge of town / out of town where the transport hub is also not well connected leads to a disjointed sustainable public transport which will always be second best to car travel.

Object

Local Plan 2040 Draft Plan - Strategy options and draft policies consultation

Representation ID: 6305

Received: 10/09/2021

Representation Summary:

The Transport Modelling undertaken by AECOM in support of the strategic options in the Draft Local Plan 2040 is fundamentally flawed for the following reasons.
No validation or calibration of the traffic model has been undertaken which is not in keeping with Department for Transport WebTAG guidance.
It is assumed that the Bedford Borough Transport Model was undertaken using Saturn, which was the model of choice for the Bedford Town Centre modelling project in 2015. In this case, Saturn cannot directly Model Public Transport therefore it is assumed that the engineers have made some significant assumptions with respect to public transport and trips being used, which have not been validated or calibrated.
TAG unit M1.2 introduces the National Trip End Model (NTEM). It includes forecasts of population, households, workforce and jobs over 30 years which are used in a series of models that forecast population, employment, car ownership, trip ends and traffic growth by Middle Layer Super Output Area (MSOA). The NTEM data set can be viewed using the TEMPro (Trip End Model Presentation Program) software. TEMPro estimates of trip ends at any level below aggregate regions (e.g. MSOA, district, or county level) are subject to uncertainty and should not be used as constraints in matrix development process without verification and possible adjustments. No uncertainty log was prepared which is a recommendation of WebTAG modelling guidance.
For direct use in matrix development, trip rate information estimated from household survey data should be considered instead to underpin trip end estimates at zone level. There is a risk that model may not be realistic or sensible due to the error around the model parameters used, or limitations in the extent to which the model can represent human behaviour. Therefore, before using any mathematical model, it is essential to check that it produces credible outputs consistent with observed behaviour. This is usually done by running the model for the base year (either the current year or a recent year), and:
• comparing its outputs with independent data (validation);
• checking that its response to changes in inputs is realistic, based on results from independent evidence (realism testing); and
• checking that the model responds appropriately to all its main inputs (sensitivity testing).
Five types of data can be collected and used to inform most models:
• data on the transport network, including the physical layout, number of lanes, signal timings, public transport frequencies and capacities;
• counts of vehicles or persons on transport services, links or at junctions;
• journey times;
• queue lengths at busy junctions;
• interview surveys, in which transport users are asked to describe trips either through household travel diaries or intercept surveys (e.g. roadside interviews, public transport onboard interview surveys.
These types of checks have not been undertaken to validate / calibrate the model.
AECOM have derived trip ends using CTripEnds for a number of journey purposes. Expanding synthetic trip ends produced by CTripEnd to the local zoning system is considered to be subject to significant discrepancies from observed especially if validation and the calibration exercise has not been undertaken.
It is also important to note that strategic models are not designed for use in a scheme specific assessment.

For such an assessment it is recommended a revised forecast model would be produced from a recalibrated base year model using additional and more recent data and targeted to reflect a more specific geographical focus of resources and modelling effort.
As part of the Bedford Borough Transport Model documents it is quoted that average departing trips are 20 to 25 vehicles, which may be below the trip rates assumed as part of a detailed development assessment. The extract below is taken from the New Settlement West of Wyboston document.
It is unknown what scenario of Dennybrook (site 977) development that the above “20 to 25 outbound car vehicle trips in the AM peak hour” relate to, however an outbound TRCS residential trip rate is somewhere between 0.23 to 0.33 vehicles per dwelling.
The development scenario ranges from 2,500 dwellings to 10,150 dwellings. On this basis and using a 0.25 departure trip rate results in 625 to 2,538 departing trips all of which would be home based departure trips. The model assumes 5 loading zones which therefore means there could be 125 to 508 vehicles per loading zone. This is significantly higher than the 20 to 25 outbound vehicle used by the AECOM model, assuming they have loaded it per node.
AECOM may claim that some of the departing trips will be internal and therefore will not cross cordon line however taking the 125 departing vehicle trips associated with 2,500 dwellings scenario; 20% of these departing vehicles are considered not to be leaving the area. This percentage decreases further if the worst case number of dwellings is being considered, i.e. 10,150 dwellings. It has previously been highlighted that the AECOM model has not be validated / calibrated and now given the apparent significant under valuation of the likely vehicle trips that will be generated, it is clear that the assessment of the capacity of junctions and the highway network is fundamentally flawed.
The significant undervaluation of generated vehicle trips could be argued by AECOM as being a reduction due to the impact of the public transport. However, the proposed new railway stations associated with the East West Rail Link are located to the east of the A1, which is significantly far enough away for the Dennybook development to be considered to not directly serve it without requiring a vehicle car trip to be generated. In this scenario it more likely that occupiers of Dennybrook (site 977) dwellings will continue their journey by car as opposed to transferring onto rail.
Given this all of the assessments undertaken by AECOM to determine the rerouting and vehicle km travelled for any scenario are highly unlikely to be representative.
Town planning principles are that new development should be centred on and around existing sustainable urban area where local infrastructure exists and allow residents to travel using public transport to serve the development which can be easily extended.
If larger new settlements are the only realistic option then they should be centred on transport hubs such as a new railway station so that they become the heart of the community and the de facto mode of travel. Locating a new settlement on the edge of town / out of town where the transport hub is also not well connected leads to a disjointed sustainable public transport which will always be second best to car travel.

Object

Local Plan 2040 Draft Plan - Strategy options and draft policies consultation

Representation ID: 6427

Received: 13/09/2021

Representation Summary:

The Transport Modelling undertaken by AECOM in support of the strategic options in the Draft Local Plan 2040 is fundamentally flawed for the following reasons.
No validation or calibration of the traffic model has been undertaken which is not in keeping with Department for Transport WebTAG guidance.
It is assumed that the Bedford Borough Transport Model was undertaken using Saturn, which was the model of choice for the Bedford Town Centre modelling project in 2015. In this case, Saturn cannot directly Model Public Transport therefore it is assumed that the engineers have made some significant assumptions with respect to public transport and trips being used, which have not been validated or calibrated.
TAG unit M1.2 introduces the National Trip End Model (NTEM). It includes forecasts of population, households, workforce and jobs over 30 years which are used in a series of models that forecast population, employment, car ownership, trip ends and traffic growth by Middle Layer Super Output Area (MSOA). The NTEM data set can be viewed using the TEMPro (Trip End Model Presentation Program) software. TEMPro estimates of trip ends at any level below aggregate regions (e.g. MSOA, district, or county level) are subject to uncertainty and should not be used as constraints in matrix development process without verification and possible adjustments. No uncertainty log was prepared which is a recommendation of WebTAG modelling guidance.
For direct use in matrix development, trip rate information estimated from household survey data should be considered instead to underpin trip end estimates at zone level. There is a risk that model may not be realistic or sensible due to the error around the model parameters used, or limitations in the extent to which the model can represent human behaviour. Therefore, before using any mathematical model, it is essential to check that it produces credible outputs consistent with observed behaviour. This is usually done by running the model for the base year (either the current year or a recent year), and:
• comparing its outputs with independent data (validation);
• checking that its response to changes in inputs is realistic, based on results from independent evidence (realism testing); and
• checking that the model responds appropriately to all its main inputs (sensitivity testing).
Five types of data can be collected and used to inform most models:
• data on the transport network, including the physical layout, number of lanes, signal timings, public transport frequencies and capacities;
• counts of vehicles or persons on transport services, links or at junctions;
• journey times;
• queue lengths at busy junctions;
• interview surveys, in which transport users are asked to describe trips either through household travel diaries or intercept surveys (e.g. roadside interviews, public transport onboard interview surveys.
These types of checks have not been undertaken to validate / calibrate the model.
AECOM have derived trip ends using CTripEnds for a number of journey purposes. Expanding synthetic trip ends produced by CTripEnd to the local zoning system is considered to be subject to significant discrepancies from observed especially if validation and the calibration exercise has not been undertaken.
It is also important to note that strategic models are not designed for use in a scheme specific assessment. For such an assessment it is recommended a revised forecast model would be produced from a recalibrated base year model using additional and more recent data and targeted to reflect a more specific geographical focus of resources and modelling effort.

As part of the Bedford Borough Transport Model documents it is quoted that average departing trips are 20 to 25 vehicles, which may be below the trip rates assumed as part of a detailed development assessment. The extract below is taken from the New Settlement West of Wyboston document.
[PARAGRAPH 2.4.3 OF NEW SETTLEMENT WEST OF WYBOSTON DOCUMENT]
It is unknown what scenario of Dennybrook (site 977) development that the above “20 to 25 outbound car vehicle trips in the AM peak hour” relate to, however an outbound TRCS residential trip rate is somewhere between 0.23 to 0.33 vehicles per dwelling.
The development scenario ranges from 2,500 dwellings to 10,150 dwellings. On this basis and using a 0.25 departure trip rate results in 625 to 2,538 departing trips all of which would be home based departure trips. The model assumes 5 loading zones which therefore means there could be 125 to 508 vehicles per loading zone. This is significantly higher than the 20 to 25 outbound vehicle used by the AECOM model, assuming they have loaded it per node.
AECOM may claim that some of the departing trips will be internal and therefore will not cross cordon line however taking the 125 departing vehicle trips associated with 2,500 dwellings scenario; 20% of these departing vehicles are considered not to be leaving the area. This percentage decreases further if the worst case number of dwellings is being considered, i.e. 10,150 dwellings. It has previously been highlighted that the AECOM model has not be validated / calibrated and now given the apparent significant under valuation of the likely vehicle trips that will be generated, it is clear that the assessment of the capacity of junctions and the highway network is fundamentally flawed.
The significant undervaluation of generated vehicle trips could be argued by AECOM as being a reduction due to the impact of the public transport. However, the proposed new railway stations associated with the East West Rail Link are located to the east of the A1, which is significantly far enough away for the Dennybook development to be considered to not directly serve it without requiring a vehicle car trip to be generated. In this scenario it more likely that occupiers of Dennybrook (site 977) dwellings will continue their journey by car as opposed to transferring onto rail.
Given this all of the assessments undertaken by AECOM to determine the rerouting and vehicle km travelled for any scenario are highly unlikely to be representative.
Town planning principles are that new development should be centred on and around existing sustainable urban area where local infrastructure exists and allow residents to travel using public transport to serve the development which can be easily extended.
If larger new settlements are the only realistic option then they should be centred on transport hubs such as a new railway station so that they become the heart of the community and the de facto mode of travel. Locating a new settlement on the edge of town / out of town where the transport hub is also not well connected leads to a disjointed sustainable public transport which will always be second best to car travel.

Object

Local Plan 2040 Draft Plan - Strategy options and draft policies consultation

Representation ID: 6434

Received: 13/09/2021

Representation Summary:

The Transport Modelling undertaken by AECOM in support of the strategic options in the Draft Local Plan 2040 is fundamentally flawed for the following reasons.
No validation or calibration of the traffic model has been undertaken which is not in keeping with Department for Transport WebTAG guidance.
It is assumed that the Bedford Borough Transport Model was undertaken using Saturn, which was the model of choice for the Bedford Town Centre modelling project in 2015. In this case, Saturn cannot directly Model Public Transport therefore it is assumed that the engineers have made some significant assumptions with respect to public transport and trips being used, which have not been validated or calibrated.
TAG unit M1.2 introduces the National Trip End Model (NTEM). It includes forecasts of population, households, workforce and jobs over 30 years which are used in a series of models that forecast population, employment, car ownership, trip ends and traffic growth by Middle Layer Super Output Area (MSOA). The NTEM data set can be viewed using the TEMPro (Trip End Model Presentation Program) software. TEMPro estimates of trip ends at any level below aggregate regions (e.g. MSOA, district, or county level) are subject to uncertainty and should not be used as constraints in matrix development process without verification and possible adjustments. No uncertainty log was prepared which is a recommendation of WebTAG modelling guidance.
For direct use in matrix development, trip rate information estimated from household survey data should be considered instead to underpin trip end estimates at zone level. There is a risk that model may not be realistic or sensible due to the error around the model parameters used, or limitations in the extent to which the model can represent human behaviour. Therefore, before using any mathematical model, it is essential to check that it produces credible outputs consistent with observed behaviour. This is usually done by running the model for the base year (either the current year or a recent year), and:
• comparing its outputs with independent data (validation);
• checking that its response to changes in inputs is realistic, based on results from independent evidence (realism testing); and
• checking that the model responds appropriately to all its main inputs (sensitivity testing).
Five types of data can be collected and used to inform most models:
• data on the transport network, including the physical layout, number of lanes, signal timings, public transport frequencies and capacities;
• counts of vehicles or persons on transport services, links or at junctions;
• journey times;
• queue lengths at busy junctions;
• interview surveys, in which transport users are asked to describe trips either through household travel diaries or intercept surveys (e.g. roadside interviews, public transport onboard interview surveys.
These types of checks have not been undertaken to validate / calibrate the model.

AECOM have derived trip ends using CTripEnds for a number of journey purposes. Expanding synthetic trip ends produced by CTripEnd to the local zoning system is considered to be subject to significant discrepancies from observed especially if validation and the calibration exercise has not been undertaken.
It is also important to note that strategic models are not designed for use in a scheme specific assessment. For such an assessment it is recommended a revised forecast model would be produced from a recalibrated base year model using additional and more recent data and targeted to reflect a more specific geographical focus of resources and modelling effort.
As part of the Bedford Borough Transport Model documents it is quoted that average departing trips are 20 to 25 vehicles, which may be below the trip rates assumed as part of a detailed development assessment. The extract below is taken from the New Settlement West of Wyboston document.
It is unknown what scenario of Dennybrook (site 977) development that the above “20 to 25 outbound car vehicle trips in the AM peak hour” relate to, however an outbound TRCS residential trip rate is somewhere between 0.23 to 0.33 vehicles per dwelling.
The development scenario ranges from 2,500 dwellings to 10,150 dwellings. On this basis and using a 0.25 departure trip rate results in 625 to 2,538 departing trips all of which would be home based departure trips. The model assumes 5 loading zones which therefore means there could be 125 to 508 vehicles per loading zone. This is significantly higher than the 20 to 25 outbound vehicle used by the AECOM model, assuming they have loaded it per node.
AECOM may claim that some of the departing trips will be internal and therefore will not cross cordon line however taking the 125 departing vehicle trips associated with 2,500 dwellings scenario; 20% of these departing vehicles are considered not to be leaving the area. This percentage decreases further if the worst case number of dwellings is being considered, i.e. 10,150 dwellings. It has previously been highlighted that the AECOM model has not be validated / calibrated and now given the apparent significant under valuation of the likely vehicle trips that will be generated, it is clear that the assessment of the capacity of junctions and the highway network is fundamentally flawed.
The significant undervaluation of generated vehicle trips could be argued by AECOM as being a reduction due to the impact of the public transport. However, the proposed new railway stations associated with the East West Rail Link are located to the east of the A1, which is significantly far enough away for the Dennybook development to be considered to not directly serve it without requiring a vehicle car trip to be generated. In this scenario it more likely that occupiers of Dennybrook (site 977) dwellings will continue their journey by car as opposed to transferring onto rail.
Given this all of the assessments undertaken by AECOM to determine the rerouting and vehicle km travelled for any scenario are highly unlikely to be representative.
Town planning principles are that new development should be centred on and around existing sustainable urban area where local infrastructure exists and allow residents to travel using public transport to serve the development which can be easily extended.
If larger new settlements are the only realistic option then they should be centred on transport hubs such as a new railway station so that they become the heart of the community and the de facto mode of travel. Locating a new settlement on the edge of town / out of town where the transport hub is also not well connected leads to a disjointed sustainable public transport which will always be second best to car travel.

Object

Local Plan 2040 Draft Plan - Strategy options and draft policies consultation

Representation ID: 6532

Received: 13/09/2021

Representation Summary:

The Transport Modelling undertaken by AECOM in support of the strategic options in the Draft Local Plan 2040 is fundamentally flawed for the following reasons.
No validation or calibration of the traffic model has been undertaken which is not in keeping with Department for Transport WebTAG guidance.
It is assumed that the Bedford Borough Transport Model was undertaken using Saturn, which was the model of choice for the Bedford Town Centre modelling project in 2015. In this case, Saturn cannot directly Model Public Transport therefore it is assumed that the engineers have made some significant assumptions with respect to public transport and trips being used, which have not been validated or calibrated.
TAG unit M1.2 introduces the National Trip End Model (NTEM). It includes forecasts of population, households, workforce and jobs over 30 years which are used in a series of models that forecast population, employment, car ownership, trip ends and traffic growth by Middle Layer Super Output Area (MSOA). The NTEM data set can be viewed using the TEMPro (Trip End Model Presentation Program) software. TEMPro estimates of trip ends at any level below aggregate regions (e.g. MSOA, district, or county level) are subject to uncertainty and should not be used as constraints in matrix development process without verification and possible adjustments. No uncertainty log was prepared which is a recommendation of WebTAG modelling guidance.
For direct use in matrix development, trip rate information estimated from household survey data should be considered instead to underpin trip end estimates at zone level. There is a risk that model may not be realistic or sensible due to the error around the model parameters used, or limitations in the extent to which the model can represent human behaviour. Therefore, before using any mathematical model, it is essential to check that it produces credible outputs consistent with observed behaviour. This is usually done by running the model for the base year (either the current year or a recent year), and:
• comparing its outputs with independent data (validation);
• checking that its response to changes in inputs is realistic, based on results from independent evidence (realism testing); and
• checking that the model responds appropriately to all its main inputs (sensitivity testing).
Five types of data can be collected and used to inform most models:
• data on the transport network, including the physical layout, number of lanes, signal timings, public transport frequencies and capacities;
• counts of vehicles or persons on transport services, links or at junctions;
• journey times;
• queue lengths at busy junctions;
• interview surveys, in which transport users are asked to describe trips either through household travel diaries or intercept surveys (e.g. roadside interviews, public transport onboard interview surveys.
These types of checks have not been undertaken to validate / calibrate the model.
AECOM have derived trip ends using CTripEnds for a number of journey purposes. Expanding synthetic trip ends produced by CTripEnd to the local zoning system is considered to be subject to significant discrepancies from observed especially if validation and the calibration exercise has not been undertaken.
It is also important to note that strategic models are not designed for use in a scheme specific assessment. For such an assessment it is recommended a revised forecast model would be produced from a recalibrated base year model using additional and more recent data and targeted to reflect a more specific geographical focus of resources and modelling effort.

As part of the Bedford Borough Transport Model documents it is quoted that average departing trips are 20 to 25 vehicles, which may be below the trip rates assumed as part of a detailed development assessment. The extract below is taken from the New Settlement West of Wyboston document.



It is unknown what scenario of Dennybrook (site 977) development that the above “20 to 25 outbound car vehicle trips in the AM peak hour” relate to, however an outbound TRCS residential trip rate is somewhere between 0.23 to 0.33 vehicles per dwelling.
The development scenario ranges from 2,500 dwellings to 10,150 dwellings. On this basis and using a 0.25 departure trip rate results in 625 to 2,538 departing trips all of which would be home based departure trips. The model assumes 5 loading zones which therefore means there could be 125 to 508 vehicles per loading zone. This is significantly higher than the 20 to 25 outbound vehicle used by the AECOM model, assuming they have loaded it per node.
AECOM may claim that some of the departing trips will be internal and therefore will not cross cordon line however taking the 125 departing vehicle trips associated with 2,500 dwellings scenario; 20% of these departing vehicles are considered not to be leaving the area. This percentage decreases further if the worst case number of dwellings is being considered, i.e. 10,150 dwellings. It has previously been highlighted that the AECOM model has not be validated / calibrated and now given the apparent significant under valuation of the likely vehicle trips that will be generated, it is clear that the assessment of the capacity of junctions and the highway network is fundamentally flawed.
The significant undervaluation of generated vehicle trips could be argued by AECOM as being a reduction due to the impact of the public transport. However, the proposed new railway stations associated with the East West Rail Link are located to the east of the A1, which is significantly far enough away for the Dennybook development to be considered to not directly serve it without requiring a vehicle car trip to be generated. In this scenario it more likely that occupiers of Dennybrook (site 977) dwellings will continue their journey by car as opposed to transferring onto rail.
Given this all of the assessments undertaken by AECOM to determine the rerouting and vehicle km travelled for any scenario are highly unlikely to be representative.
Town planning principles are that new development should be centred on and around existing sustainable urban area where local infrastructure exists and allow residents to travel using public transport to serve the development which can be easily extended.
If larger new settlements are the only realistic option then they should be centred on transport hubs such as a new railway station so that they become the heart of the community and the de facto mode of travel. Locating a new settlement on the edge of town / out of town where the transport hub is also not well connected leads to a disjointed sustainable public transport which will always be second best to car travel.

Object

Local Plan 2040 Draft Plan - Strategy options and draft policies consultation

Representation ID: 6591

Received: 14/09/2021

Representation Summary:

The Transport Modelling undertaken by AECOM in support of the strategic options in the Draft Local Plan 2040 is fundamentally flawed for the following reasons.
No validation or calibration of the traffic model has been undertaken which is not in keeping with Department for Transport WebTAG guidance.
It is assumed that the Bedford Borough Transport Model was undertaken using Saturn, which was the model of choice for the Bedford Town Centre modelling project in 2015. In this case, Saturn cannot directly Model Public Transport therefore it is assumed that the engineers have made some significant assumptions with respect to public transport and trips being used, which have not been validated or calibrated.
TAG unit M1.2 introduces the National Trip End Model (NTEM). It includes forecasts of population, households, workforce and jobs over 30 years which are used in a series of models that forecast population, employment, car ownership, trip ends and traffic growth by Middle Layer Super Output Area (MSOA). The NTEM data set can be viewed using the TEMPro (Trip End Model Presentation Program) software. TEMPro estimates of trip ends at any level below aggregate regions (e.g. MSOA, district, or county level) are subject to uncertainty and should not be used as constraints in matrix development process without verification and possible adjustments. No uncertainty log was prepared which is a recommendation of WebTAG modelling guidance.
For direct use in matrix development, trip rate information estimated from household survey data should be considered instead to underpin trip end estimates at zone level. There is a risk that model may not be realistic or sensible due to the error around the model parameters used, or limitations in the extent to which the model can represent human behaviour. Therefore, before using any mathematical model, it is essential to check that it produces credible outputs consistent with observed behaviour. This is usually done by running the model for the base year (either the current year or a recent year), and:
• comparing its outputs with independent data (validation);
• checking that its response to changes in inputs is realistic, based on results from independent evidence (realism testing); and
• checking that the model responds appropriately to all its main inputs (sensitivity testing).
Five types of data can be collected and used to inform most models:
• data on the transport network, including the physical layout, number of lanes, signal timings, public transport frequencies and capacities;
• counts of vehicles or persons on transport services, links or at junctions;
• journey times;
• queue lengths at busy junctions;
• interview surveys, in which transport users are asked to describe trips either through household travel diaries or intercept surveys (e.g. roadside interviews, public transport onboard interview surveys.
These types of checks have not been undertaken to validate / calibrate the model.
AECOM have derived trip ends using CTripEnds for a number of journey purposes. Expanding synthetic trip ends produced by CTripEnd to the local zoning system is considered to be subject to significant discrepancies from observed especially if validation and the calibration exercise has not been undertaken.
It is also important to note that strategic models are not designed for use in a scheme specific assessment. For such an assessment it is recommended a revised forecast model would be produced from a recalibrated base year model using additional and more recent data and targeted to reflect a more specific geographical focus of resources and modelling effort.

As part of the Bedford Borough Transport Model documents it is quoted that average departing trips are 20 to 25 vehicles, which may be below the trip rates assumed as part of a detailed development assessment. The extract below is taken from the New Settlement West of Wyboston document. [Para 2.4.3 extract inserted.]
It is unknown what scenario of Dennybrook (site 977) development that the above “20 to 25 outbound car vehicle trips in the AM peak hour” relate to, however an outbound TRCS residential trip rate is somewhere between 0.23 to 0.33 vehicles per dwelling.
The development scenario ranges from 2,500 dwellings to 10,150 dwellings. On this basis and using a 0.25 departure trip rate results in 625 to 2,538 departing trips all of which would be home based departure trips. The model assumes 5 loading zones which therefore means there could be 125 to 508 vehicles per loading zone. This is significantly higher than the 20 to 25 outbound vehicle used by the AECOM model, assuming they have loaded it per node.
AECOM may claim that some of the departing trips will be internal and therefore will not cross cordon line however taking the 125 departing vehicle trips associated with 2,500 dwellings scenario; 20% of these departing vehicles are considered not to be leaving the area. This percentage decreases further if the worst case number of dwellings is being considered, i.e. 10,150 dwellings. It has previously been highlighted that the AECOM model has not be validated / calibrated and now given the apparent significant under valuation of the likely vehicle trips that will be generated, it is clear that the assessment of the capacity of junctions and the highway network is fundamentally flawed.
The significant undervaluation of generated vehicle trips could be argued by AECOM as being a reduction due to the impact of the public transport. However, the proposed new railway stations associated with the East West Rail Link are located to the east of the A1, which is significantly far enough away for the Dennybook development to be considered to not directly serve it without requiring a vehicle car trip to be generated. In this scenario it more likely that occupiers of Dennybrook (site 977) dwellings will continue their journey by car as opposed to transferring onto rail.
Given this all of the assessments undertaken by AECOM to determine the rerouting and vehicle km travelled for any scenario are highly unlikely to be representative.
Town planning principles are that new development should be centred on and around existing sustainable urban area where local infrastructure exists and allow residents to travel using public transport to serve the development which can be easily extended.
If larger new settlements are the only realistic option then they should be centred on transport hubs such as a new railway station so that they become the heart of the community and the de facto mode of travel. Locating a new settlement on the edge of town / out of town where the transport hub is also not well connected leads to a disjointed sustainable public transport which will always be second best to car travel.

1.27 100 word summary

The transport model used by AECOM is fundamentally flawed because the model has not been validated / calibrated (particularly with respect to public transport), the National Trip End Model (NTEM) should not be used below district / county level, no uncertainty log has been prepared, it doesn’t include household survey data, and the data has not been adequately tested. Strategic models are not designed for use in a scheme specific assessment. The latter requires a revised forecast model produced from a recalibrated base year model using additional and more recent data with a more specific geographical focus of resources and modelling.

Object

Local Plan 2040 Draft Plan - Strategy options and draft policies consultation

Representation ID: 6713

Received: 14/09/2021

Representation Summary:

The Transport Modelling undertaken by AECOM in support of the strategic options in the Draft Local Plan 2040 is fundamentally flawed for the following reasons.
No validation or calibration of the traffic model has been undertaken which is not in keeping with Department for Transport WebTAG guidance.
It is assumed that the Bedford Borough Transport Model was undertaken using Saturn, which was the model of choice for the Bedford Town Centre modelling project in 2015. In this case, Saturn cannot directly Model Public Transport therefore it is assumed that the engineers have made some significant assumptions with respect to public transport and trips being used, which have not been validated or calibrated.
TAG unit M1.2 introduces the National Trip End Model (NTEM). It includes forecasts of population, households, workforce and jobs over 30 years which are used in a series of models that forecast population, employment, car ownership, trip ends and traffic growth by Middle Layer Super Output Area (MSOA). The NTEM data set can be viewed using the TEMPro (Trip End Model Presentation Program) software. TEMPro estimates of trip ends at any level below aggregate regions (e.g. MSOA, district, or county level) are subject to uncertainty and should not be used as constraints in matrix development process without verification and possible adjustments. No uncertainty log was prepared which is a recommendation of WebTAG modelling guidance.
For direct use in matrix development, trip rate information estimated from household survey data should be considered instead to underpin trip end estimates at zone level. There is a risk that model may not be realistic or sensible due to the error around the model parameters used, or limitations in the extent to which the model can represent human behaviour. Therefore, before using any mathematical model, it is essential to check that it produces credible outputs consistent with observed behaviour. This is usually done by running the model for the base year (either the current year or a recent year), and:
• comparing its outputs with independent data (validation);
• checking that its response to changes in inputs is realistic, based on results from independent evidence (realism testing); and
• checking that the model responds appropriately to all its main inputs (sensitivity testing).
Five types of data can be collected and used to inform most models:
• data on the transport network, including the physical layout, number of lanes, signal timings, public transport frequencies and capacities;
• counts of vehicles or persons on transport services, links or at junctions;
• journey times;
• queue lengths at busy junctions;
• interview surveys, in which transport users are asked to describe trips either through household travel diaries or intercept surveys (e.g. roadside interviews, public transport onboard interview surveys.
These types of checks have not been undertaken to validate / calibrate the model.
AECOM have derived trip ends using CTripEnds for a number of journey purposes. Expanding synthetic trip ends produced by CTripEnd to the local zoning system is considered to be subject to significant discrepancies from observed especially if validation and the calibration exercise has not been undertaken.
It is also important to note that strategic models are not designed for use in a scheme specific assessment. For such an assessment it is recommended a revised forecast model would be produced from a recalibrated base year model using additional and more recent data and targeted to reflect a more specific geographical focus of resources and modelling effort.

As part of the Bedford Borough Transport Model documents it is quoted that average departing trips are 20 to 25 vehicles, which may be below the trip rates assumed as part of a detailed development assessment. The extract below is taken from the New Settlement West of Wyboston document.



It is unknown what scenario of Dennybrook (site 977) development that the above “20 to 25 outbound car vehicle trips in the AM peak hour” relate to, however an outbound TRCS residential trip rate is somewhere between 0.23 to 0.33 vehicles per dwelling.
The development scenario ranges from 2,500 dwellings to 10,150 dwellings. On this basis and using a 0.25 departure trip rate results in 625 to 2,538 departing trips all of which would be home based departure trips. The model assumes 5 loading zones which therefore means there could be 125 to 508 vehicles per loading zone. This is significantly higher than the 20 to 25 outbound vehicle used by the AECOM model, assuming they have loaded it per node.
AECOM may claim that some of the departing trips will be internal and therefore will not cross cordon line however taking the 125 departing vehicle trips associated with 2,500 dwellings scenario; 20% of these departing vehicles are considered not to be leaving the area. This percentage decreases further if the worst case number of dwellings is being considered, i.e. 10,150 dwellings. It has previously been highlighted that the AECOM model has not be validated / calibrated and now given the apparent significant under valuation of the likely vehicle trips that will be generated, it is clear that the assessment of the capacity of junctions and the highway network is fundamentally flawed.
The significant undervaluation of generated vehicle trips could be argued by AECOM as being a reduction due to the impact of the public transport. However, the proposed new railway stations associated with the East West Rail Link are located to the east of the A1, which is significantly far enough away for the Dennybook development to be considered to not directly serve it without requiring a vehicle car trip to be generated. In this scenario it more likely that occupiers of Dennybrook (site 977) dwellings will continue their journey by car as opposed to transferring onto rail.
Given this all of the assessments undertaken by AECOM to determine the rerouting and vehicle km travelled for any scenario are highly unlikely to be representative.
Town planning principles are that new development should be centred on and around existing sustainable urban area where local infrastructure exists and allow residents to travel using public transport to serve the development which can be easily extended.
If larger new settlements are the only realistic option then they should be centred on transport hubs such as a new railway station so that they become the heart of the community and the de facto mode of travel. Locating a new settlement on the edge of town / out of town where the transport hub is also not well connected leads to a disjointed sustainable public transport which will always be second best to car travel.

Object

Local Plan 2040 Draft Plan - Strategy options and draft policies consultation

Representation ID: 6751

Received: 14/09/2021

Representation Summary:

The Transport Modelling undertaken by AECOM in support of the strategic options in the Draft Local Plan 2040 is fundamentally flawed for the following reasons.
No validation or calibration of the traffic model has been undertaken which is not in keeping with Department for Transport WebTAG guidance.
It is assumed that the Bedford Borough Transport Model was undertaken using Saturn, which was the model of choice for the Bedford Town Centre modelling project in 2015. In this case, Saturn cannot directly Model Public Transport therefore it is assumed that the engineers have made some significant assumptions with respect to public transport and trips being used, which have not been validated or calibrated.
TAG unit M1.2 introduces the National Trip End Model (NTEM). It includes forecasts of population, households, workforce and jobs over 30 years which are used in a series of models that forecast population, employment, car ownership, trip ends and traffic growth by Middle Layer Super Output Area (MSOA). The NTEM data set can be viewed using the TEMPro (Trip End Model Presentation Program) software. TEMPro estimates of trip ends at any level below aggregate regions (e.g. MSOA, district, or county level) are subject to uncertainty and should not be used as constraints in matrix development process without verification and possible adjustments. No uncertainty log was prepared which is a recommendation of WebTAG modelling guidance.
For direct use in matrix development, trip rate information estimated from household survey data should be considered instead to underpin trip end estimates at zone level. There is a risk that model may not be realistic or sensible due to the error around the model parameters used, or limitations in the extent to which the model can represent human behaviour. Therefore, before using any mathematical model, it is essential to check that it produces credible outputs consistent with observed behaviour. This is usually done by running the model for the base year (either the current year or a recent year), and:
• comparing its outputs with independent data (validation);
• checking that its response to changes in inputs is realistic, based on results from independent evidence (realism testing); and
• checking that the model responds appropriately to all its main inputs (sensitivity testing).
Five types of data can be collected and used to inform most models:
• data on the transport network, including the physical layout, number of lanes, signal timings, public transport frequencies and capacities;
• counts of vehicles or persons on transport services, links or at junctions;
• journey times;
• queue lengths at busy junctions;
• interview surveys, in which transport users are asked to describe trips either through household travel diaries or intercept surveys (e.g. roadside interviews, public transport onboard interview surveys.
These types of checks have not been undertaken to validate / calibrate the model.
AECOM have derived trip ends using CTripEnds for a number of journey purposes. Expanding synthetic trip ends produced by CTripEnd to the local zoning system is considered to be subject to significant discrepancies from observed especially if validation and the calibration exercise has not been undertaken.
It is also important to note that strategic models are not designed for use in a scheme specific assessment. For such an assessment it is recommended a revised forecast model would be produced from a recalibrated base year model using additional and more recent data and targeted to reflect a more specific geographical focus of resources and modelling effort.

As part of the Bedford Borough Transport Model documents it is quoted that average departing trips are 20 to 25 vehicles, which may be below the trip rates assumed as part of a detailed development assessment. The extract below is taken from the New Settlement West of Wyboston document.



It is unknown what scenario of Dennybrook (site 977) development that the above “20 to 25 outbound car vehicle trips in the AM peak hour” relate to, however an outbound TRCS residential trip rate is somewhere between 0.23 to 0.33 vehicles per dwelling.
The development scenario ranges from 2,500 dwellings to 10,150 dwellings. On this basis and using a 0.25 departure trip rate results in 625 to 2,538 departing trips all of which would be home based departure trips. The model assumes 5 loading zones which therefore means there could be 125 to 508 vehicles per loading zone. This is significantly higher than the 20 to 25 outbound vehicle used by the AECOM model, assuming they have loaded it per node.
AECOM may claim that some of the departing trips will be internal and therefore will not cross cordon line however taking the 125 departing vehicle trips associated with 2,500 dwellings scenario; 20% of these departing vehicles are considered not to be leaving the area. This percentage decreases further if the worst case number of dwellings is being considered, i.e. 10,150 dwellings. It has previously been highlighted that the AECOM model has not be validated / calibrated and now given the apparent significant under valuation of the likely vehicle trips that will be generated, it is clear that the assessment of the capacity of junctions and the highway network is fundamentally flawed.
The significant undervaluation of generated vehicle trips could be argued by AECOM as being a reduction due to the impact of the public transport. However, the proposed new railway stations associated with the East West Rail Link are located to the east of the A1, which is significantly far enough away for the Dennybook development to be considered to not directly serve it without requiring a vehicle car trip to be generated. In this scenario it more likely that occupiers of Dennybrook (site 977) dwellings will continue their journey by car as opposed to transferring onto rail.
Given this all of the assessments undertaken by AECOM to determine the rerouting and vehicle km travelled for any scenario are highly unlikely to be representative.
Town planning principles are that new development should be centred on and around existing sustainable urban area where local infrastructure exists and allow residents to travel using public transport to serve the development which can be easily extended.
If larger new settlements are the only realistic option then they should be centred on transport hubs such as a new railway station so that they become the heart of the community and the de facto mode of travel. Locating a new settlement on the edge of town / out of town where the transport hub is also not well connected leads to a disjointed sustainable public transport which will always be second best to car travel.

Object

Local Plan 2040 Draft Plan - Strategy options and draft policies consultation

Representation ID: 6803

Received: 15/09/2021

Representation Summary:

The Transport Modelling undertaken by AECOM in support of the strategic options in the Draft Local Plan 2040 is fundamentally flawed for the following reasons.
No validation or calibration of the traffic model has been undertaken which is not in keeping with Department for Transport WebTAG guidance.
It is assumed that the Bedford Borough Transport Model was undertaken using Saturn, which was the model of choice for the Bedford Town Centre modelling project in 2015. In this case, Saturn cannot directly Model Public Transport therefore it is assumed that the engineers have made some significant assumptions with respect to public transport and trips being used, which have not been validated or calibrated.
TAG unit M1.2 introduces the National Trip End Model (NTEM). It includes forecasts of population, households, workforce and jobs over 30 years which are used in a series of models that forecast population, employment, car ownership, trip ends and traffic growth by Middle Layer Super Output Area (MSOA). The NTEM data set can be viewed using the TEMPro (Trip End Model Presentation Program) software. TEMPro estimates of trip ends at any level below aggregate regions (e.g. MSOA, district, or county level) are subject to uncertainty and should not be used as constraints in matrix development process without verification and possible adjustments. No uncertainty log was prepared which is a recommendation of WebTAG modelling guidance.
For direct use in matrix development, trip rate information estimated from household survey data should be considered instead to underpin trip end estimates at zone level. There is a risk that model may not be realistic or sensible due to the error around the model parameters used, or limitations in the extent to which the model can represent human behaviour. Therefore, before using any mathematical model, it is essential to check that it produces credible outputs consistent with observed behaviour. This is usually done by running the model for the base year (either the current year or a recent year), and:
• comparing its outputs with independent data (validation);
• checking that its response to changes in inputs is realistic, based on results from independent evidence (realism testing); and
• checking that the model responds appropriately to all its main inputs (sensitivity testing).
Five types of data can be collected and used to inform most models:
• data on the transport network, including the physical layout, number of lanes, signal timings, public transport frequencies and capacities;
• counts of vehicles or persons on transport services, links or at junctions;
• journey times;
• queue lengths at busy junctions;
• interview surveys, in which transport users are asked to describe trips either through household travel diaries or intercept surveys (e.g. roadside interviews, public transport onboard interview surveys.
These types of checks have not been undertaken to validate / calibrate the model.
AECOM have derived trip ends using CTripEnds for a number of journey purposes. Expanding synthetic trip ends produced by CTripEnd to the local zoning system is considered to be subject to significant discrepancies from observed especially if validation and the calibration exercise has not been undertaken.
It is also important to note that strategic models are not designed for use in a scheme specific assessment. For such an assessment it is recommended a revised forecast model would be produced from a recalibrated base year model using additional and more recent data and targeted to reflect a more specific geographical focus of resources and modelling effort.

As part of the Bedford Borough Transport Model documents it is quoted that average departing trips are 20 to 25 vehicles, which may be below the trip rates assumed as part of a detailed development assessment. The extract below is taken from the New Settlement West of Wyboston document.



It is unknown what scenario of Dennybrook (site 977) development that the above “20 to 25 outbound car vehicle trips in the AM peak hour” relate to, however an outbound TRCS residential trip rate is somewhere between 0.23 to 0.33 vehicles per dwelling.
The development scenario ranges from 2,500 dwellings to 10,150 dwellings. On this basis and using a 0.25 departure trip rate results in 625 to 2,538 departing trips all of which would be home based departure trips. The model assumes 5 loading zones which therefore means there could be 125 to 508 vehicles per loading zone. This is significantly higher than the 20 to 25 outbound vehicle used by the AECOM model, assuming they have loaded it per node.
AECOM may claim that some of the departing trips will be internal and therefore will not cross cordon line however taking the 125 departing vehicle trips associated with 2,500 dwellings scenario; 20% of these departing vehicles are considered not to be leaving the area. This percentage decreases further if the worst case number of dwellings is being considered, i.e. 10,150 dwellings. It has previously been highlighted that the AECOM model has not be validated / calibrated and now given the apparent significant under valuation of the likely vehicle trips that will be generated, it is clear that the assessment of the capacity of junctions and the highway network is fundamentally flawed.
The significant undervaluation of generated vehicle trips could be argued by AECOM as being a reduction due to the impact of the public transport. However, the proposed new railway stations associated with the East West Rail Link are located to the east of the A1, which is significantly far enough away for the Dennybook development to be considered to not directly serve it without requiring a vehicle car trip to be generated. In this scenario it more likely that occupiers of Dennybrook (site 977) dwellings will continue their journey by car as opposed to transferring onto rail.
Given this all of the assessments undertaken by AECOM to determine the rerouting and vehicle km travelled for any scenario are highly unlikely to be representative.
Town planning principles are that new development should be centred on and around existing sustainable urban area where local infrastructure exists and allow residents to travel using public transport to serve the development which can be easily extended.
If larger new settlements are the only realistic option then they should be centred on transport hubs such as a new railway station so that they become the heart of the community and the de facto mode of travel. Locating a new settlement on the edge of town / out of town where the transport hub is also not well connected leads to a disjointed sustainable public transport which will always be second best to car travel.

Object

Local Plan 2040 Draft Plan - Strategy options and draft policies consultation

Representation ID: 6851

Received: 13/09/2021

Representation Summary:

The Transport Modelling undertaken by AECOM in support of the strategic options in the Draft Local Plan 2040 is fundamentally flawed for the following reasons.
No validation or calibration of the traffic model has been undertaken which is not in keeping with Department for Transport WebTAG guidance.
It is assumed that the Bedford Borough Transport Model was undertaken using Saturn, which was the model of choice for the Bedford Town Centre modelling project in 2015. In this case, Saturn cannot directly Model Public Transport therefore it is assumed that the engineers have made some significant assumptions with respect to public transport and trips being used, which have not been validated or calibrated.
TAG unit M1.2 introduces the National Trip End Model (NTEM). It includes forecasts of population, households, workforce and jobs over 30 years which are used in a series of models that forecast population, employment, car ownership, trip ends and traffic growth by Middle Layer Super Output Area (MSOA). The NTEM data set can be viewed using the TEMPro (Trip End Model Presentation Program) software. TEMPro estimates of trip ends at any level below aggregate regions (e.g. MSOA, district, or county level) are subject to uncertainty and should not be used as constraints in matrix development process without verification and possible adjustments. No uncertainty log was prepared which is a recommendation of WebTAG modelling guidance.
For direct use in matrix development, trip rate information estimated from household survey data should be considered instead to underpin trip end estimates at zone level. There is a risk that model may not be realistic or sensible due to the error around the model parameters used, or limitations in the extent to which the model can represent human behaviour. Therefore, before using any mathematical model, it is essential to check that it produces credible outputs consistent with observed behaviour. This is usually done by running the model for the base year (either the current year or a recent year), and:
• comparing its outputs with independent data (validation);
• checking that its response to changes in inputs is realistic, based on results from independent evidence (realism testing); and
• checking that the model responds appropriately to all its main inputs (sensitivity testing).
Five types of data can be collected and used to inform most models:
• data on the transport network, including the physical layout, number of lanes, signal timings, public transport frequencies and capacities;
• counts of vehicles or persons on transport services, links or at junctions;
• journey times;
• queue lengths at busy junctions;
• interview surveys, in which transport users are asked to describe trips either through household travel diaries or intercept surveys (e.g. roadside interviews, public transport onboard interview surveys.
These types of checks have not been undertaken to validate / calibrate the model.
AECOM have derived trip ends using CTripEnds for a number of journey purposes. Expanding synthetic trip ends produced by CTripEnd to the local zoning system is considered to be subject to significant discrepancies from observed especially if validation and the calibration exercise has not been undertaken.
It is also important to note that strategic models are not designed for use in a scheme specific assessment. For such an assessment it is recommended a revised forecast model would be produced from a recalibrated base year model using additional and more recent data and targeted to reflect a more specific geographical focus of resources and modelling effort.

As part of the Bedford Borough Transport Model documents it is quoted that average departing trips are 20 to 25 vehicles, which may be below the trip rates assumed as part of a detailed development assessment. The extract below is taken from the New Settlement West of Wyboston document.
[PARAGRAPH 2.4.3 OF NEW SETTLEMENT WEST OF WYBOSTON DOCUMENT]
It is unknown what scenario of Dennybrook (site 977) development that the above “20 to 25 outbound car vehicle trips in the AM peak hour” relate to, however an outbound TRCS residential trip rate is somewhere between 0.23 to 0.33 vehicles per dwelling.
The development scenario ranges from 2,500 dwellings to 10,150 dwellings. On this basis and using a 0.25 departure trip rate results in 625 to 2,538 departing trips all of which would be home based departure trips. The model assumes 5 loading zones which therefore means there could be 125 to 508 vehicles per loading zone. This is significantly higher than the 20 to 25 outbound vehicle used by the AECOM model, assuming they have loaded it per node.
AECOM may claim that some of the departing trips will be internal and therefore will not cross cordon line however taking the 125 departing vehicle trips associated with 2,500 dwellings scenario; 20% of these departing vehicles are considered not to be leaving the area. This percentage decreases further if the worst case number of dwellings is being considered, i.e. 10,150 dwellings. It has previously been highlighted that the AECOM model has not be validated / calibrated and now given the apparent significant under valuation of the likely vehicle trips that will be generated, it is clear that the assessment of the capacity of junctions and the highway network is fundamentally flawed.
The significant undervaluation of generated vehicle trips could be argued by AECOM as being a reduction due to the impact of the public transport. However, the proposed new railway stations associated with the East West Rail Link are located to the east of the A1, which is significantly far enough away for the Dennybook development to be considered to not directly serve it without requiring a vehicle car trip to be generated. In this scenario it more likely that occupiers of Dennybrook (site 977) dwellings will continue their journey by car as opposed to transferring onto rail.
Given this all of the assessments undertaken by AECOM to determine the rerouting and vehicle km travelled for any scenario are highly unlikely to be representative.
Town planning principles are that new development should be centred on and around existing sustainable urban area where local infrastructure exists and allow residents to travel using public transport to serve the development which can be easily extended.
If larger new settlements are the only realistic option then they should be centred on transport hubs such as a new railway station so that they become the heart of the community and the de facto mode of travel. Locating a new settlement on the edge of town / out of town where the transport hub is also not well connected leads to a disjointed sustainable public transport which will always be second best to car travel.